Wheat pp 68-87 | Cite as

Factors Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis in Wheat

  • J. G. Carman
  • W. F. Campbell
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 13)


The successful application of plant biotechnologies for the improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) will require reliable procedures for regenerating plants from tissues, single cells, and protoplasts. The optimization of such procedures would be facilitated by an understanding of factors that promote the normal development of somatic embryos. Aberrant somatic embryos were first recognized in wheat tissue cultures by Ahloowalia (1982), Ozias-Akins and Vasil (1982, 1983a), Maddock et al. (1983) and Magnusson and Bornman (1985). Recently, somatic embryogenesis and other aspects of wheat tissue culture were reviewed (Maddock 1985; Bajaj and Gosal 1986). This review focuses on more recent findings and presents concepts amenable to further experimentation.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Embryogenic Callus Immature Embryo Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahloowalia BS (1982) Plant regeneration from callus culture in wheat. Crop Sci 22: 405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajaj YPS, Gosal SS (1986) Biotechnology of wheat improvement. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 2: Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 3–38Google Scholar
  3. Bapat SA, Joshi CP, Mascarenhas AF (1988) Occurrence and frequency of precocious germination of somatic embryos is a genotype-dependent phenomenon in wheat. Plant Cell Rep 7: 538–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brinegar AC, Stevens A, Fox JE (1985) Biosynthesis and degradation of a wheat embryo cytokinin-binding protein during embryogenesis and germination. Plant Physiol 79: 706–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown C, Brooks FJ, Pearson D, Mathias RJ (1988) Control of embryogenesis and organogenesis in immature wheat embryo callus using increased medium osmolarity and abscisic acid. J Plant Physiol 133: 727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carman JG (1988a) Improved somatic embryogenesis in wheat by partial simulation of the in-ovulo oxygen, growth-regulator and desiccation environments. Planta 175: 417–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carman JG (1988b) Somatic embryogenesis in wheat: factors affecting competence, induction and differentiation. In: 39th Annu Meet Tissue Culture Assoc, June 12–15, Las Vegas, NevGoogle Scholar
  8. Carman JG, Jefferson NE, Campbell WF (1988a) Induction of embryogenic Triticum aestivum L. calli. Quantification of genotype and culture medium effects. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 12: 83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carman JG, Jefferson NE, Campbell WF (1988b) Induction of embryogenic Triticum aestivum L. calli. Quantification of organic addenda and other culture variable effects. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 12: 97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cutler AJ, Saleem M, Coffey MA, Loewen MK (1989) Role of oxidative stress in cereal protoplast recalcitrance. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 18: 113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duffus CM (1985) Plant growth regulators and cereal grain development. In: Bright SWJ, Jones MGK (eds) Cereal tissue and cell culture. Kluwer, Boston, pp 97–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eapen S, Rao PS (1985) Plant regeneration from immature inflorescence callus cultures of wheat, rye and triticale. Euphytica 34: 153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eapen S, Rao PS (1986) Spontaneous and induced variation in tissue cultures and regenerated plants of breadwheat. In: Withers LA, Alderson PG (eds) Plant tissue culture and its agricultural applications. Butterworths, London Boston, pp 461–467Google Scholar
  14. Galiba G, Kovacs G, Sutka J (1986) Substitution analysis of plant regeneration from callus culture in wheat. Plant Breed 97: 261–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galiba G, Yamada Y (1988) A novel method for increasing the frequency of somatic embryogenesis in wheat tissue culture by NaC1 and KCl supplementation. Plant Cell Rep 7: 55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris R, Wright M, Byrne M, Varnum J, Brightwell B, Schubert K (1988) Callus formation and plantlet regeneration from protoplasts derived from suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Rep 7: 337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hashim ZN, Campbell WF, Carman JG (1989) Normalization of DNA content of telophase cells from wheat calli by nutrient modification. Theor Appl Genet (submitted)Google Scholar
  18. Hashim ZH, Campbell WF, Carman JG (1990) Morphological analysis of spring wheat (CIMMYT cv PCYT-10) somaclones. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 20: 95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayashi Y, Shimamoto K (1988) Wheat protoplast culture: embryogenic colony formation from Protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 7: 414–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. He DG, Tanner G, Scott KJ (1986) Somatic embryogenesis and morphogenesis in callus derived from the epiblast of immature embryos of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Plant Sci 45: 119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heyser JW, Nabors MW, MacKinnon C, Dykes TA, Demott KJ, Kautzman DC, Mujeeb-Kazi A (1985) Long-term, high-frequency plant regeneration and the induction of somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Z Pflanzenzucht 94: 218–233Google Scholar
  22. Ho LC, Gifford RM (1984) Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. J Exp Bot 35: 58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hunsinger H, Schauz K (1987) The influence of dicamba on somatic embryogenesis and frequency of plant regeneration from cultured immature embryos of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Breed 98: 119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kessell RHJ, Carr AH (1972) The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and differentiation of carrot (Daucus carota) tissue. J Exp Bot 23: 996–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larkin PJ, Ryan SA, Brettell RIS, Scowcroft WR (1984) Heritable somaclonal variation in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 67: 443–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazar MD, Chen THH, Scoles GJ, Kartha KK (1987) Immature embryo and anther culture of chromosome addition lines of rye in Chinese Spring wheat. Plant Sci 51: 77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MacKinnon C, Gunderson G, Nabors MW (1987) High efficiency plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from callus of mature embryo explants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In Vitro 23: 443–448Google Scholar
  28. Maddock SE (1985) Cell culture, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in wheat, barley, oats, rye and triticale. In: Bright SWJ, Jones MGK (eds) Cereal tissue and cell culture. Kluwer, Boston, pp 97–130Google Scholar
  29. Maddock SE, Lancaster VA, Risiott R, Franklin J (1983) Plant regeneration from cultured immature embryos and inflorescences of 25 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum). J Exp Bot 34: 915–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Magnusson I, Bornman CH (1985) Anatomical observations on somatic embryogenesis from scutellar tissues of immature zygotic embryos of Triticum aestivum. Physiol Plant 63: 137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mathias RJ, Boyd LA (1986) Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. thell). Plant Sci 46: 217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mathias RJ, Fukui K (1986) The effect of specific chromosome and cytoplasm substitutions on the tissue culture response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) callus. Theor Appl Genet 71: 797–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mathias R, Simpson ES (1986) The interaction of genotype and culture medium on the tissue culture responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. thell) callus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 7: 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mathias RJ, Fukui K, Law CN (1986) Cytoplasmic effects on the tissue culture response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) callus. Theor Appl Genet 72: 70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McHughen A (1983) Rapid regeneration of wheat in vitro. Ann Bot (London) 51: 851–853Google Scholar
  36. Morris PC, Weiler EW, Maddock SE, Jones MGK, Lenton JR, Bowles DJ (1988) Determination of endogenous abscisic acid levels in immature cereal embryos during in vitro culture. Planta 173: 110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nabors MW, Heyser JW, Dykes TA, Demott KJ (1983) Long-duration, high-frequency plant regeneration from cereal tissue cultures. Planta 157: 385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ohnoutkova L, Novak FJ, Ohnoutka Z (1984) In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) In: Novak FJ, Havel L, Dolezel J (eds) Plant tissue and cell culture application to crop improvement. Czech Acad Sci Prague, pp 107–109Google Scholar
  40. Ou G, Wang WC, Nguyen HT (1989) Inheritance of somatic embryogenesis and organ regeneration from immature embryo cultures of winter wheat. Theor Appl Genet 78: 137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1982) Plant regeneration from cultured immature embryos and inflorescences of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat): evidence for somatic embryogenesis. Protoplasma 110: 95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1983a) Improved efficiency and normalization of somatic embryogenesis in Triticum aestivum (wheat). Protoplasma 117: 40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1983b) Proliferation of and plant regeneration from the epiblast of Triticum aestivum (wheat; Gramineae) embryos. Am J Bot 70: 1092–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Papenfuss JM, Carman JG (1987) Enhanced regeneration from wheat callus cultures using dicamba and kinetin. Crop Sci 27: 558–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Purnhauser L, Medgyesy P, Czako M, Dix PJ, Marton L (1987) Stimulation of shoot regeneration in Triticum aestivum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. tissue cultures using the ethylene inhibitor AgNO,. Plant Cell Rep 6: 1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quatrano RS, Ballo BL, Williamson JD, Hamblin MT, Mansfield M (1983) ABA controlled expression of embryo-specific genes during wheat grain development. In: Goldberg RB (ed) Plant molecular biology. Liss, New York, pp 343–353Google Scholar
  47. Qureshi JA, Kartha KK, Abrams SR, Steinhauer L (1989) Modulation of somatic embryogenesis in early and late-stage embryos of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the influence of (f)-abscisic acid and its analogs. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 18: 55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Raikhel NV, Pratt LH (1987) Wheat germ agglutinin accumulation in coleoptiles of different genotypes of wheat. Localization by monoclonal antibodies. Plant Cell Rep 6: 146–149Google Scholar
  49. Rogers SO, Quatrano RS (1983) Morphological staging of wheat caryopsis development. Am J Bot 70: 308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ryan SA, Larkin PJ, Ellison FW (1987) Somaclonal variation in some agronomic and quality characters in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 74: 77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sears RG, Deckard EL (1982) Tissue culture variability in wheat: callus induction and plant regeneration. Crop Sci 22: 546–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singh BJ, Jenner CF (1983) Culture of detached ears of wheat in liquid culture: modification and extension of the method. Aust J Plant Pysiol 10: 227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Triplett BA, Quatrano RS (1982) Timing, localization and control of wheat germ agglutinin synthesis in developing wheat embryos. Dev Biol 91: 491–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vasil IK (1987) Developing cell and tissue culture systems for the improvement of cereal and grass crops. J Plant Physiol 128: 193–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang WC, Nguyen HT (1988) A novel approach to establish shoot regenerable wheat suspension culture. 39th Annu Meet Tissue Culture Assoc, June 12–15, Las Vegas, NevGoogle Scholar
  56. Wernicke W, Milkovits L (1984) Developmental gradients in wheat leaves — response of leaf segments in different genotypes cultured in vitro. J Plant Physiol 115: 49–58Google Scholar
  57. Wernicke W, Milkovits L (1986) The regeneration potential of wheat shoot meristems in the presence and absence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Protoplasma 131: 131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams EG, Maheswaran G (1986) Somatic embryogenesis: factors influencing coordinated behaviour of cells as an embryogenic group. Ann Bot (London) 57: 443–462Google Scholar
  59. Williamson JD, Quatrano RS (1988) ABA-regulation of two classes of embryo-specific sequences in mature wheat embryos. Plant Physiol 86: 208–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williamson JD, Quatrano RS, Cuming AC (1985) Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat. Eur J Biochem 152: 501–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zamora AB, Scott KJ (1983) Callus formation and plant regeneration from wheat leaves. Plant Sci Lett 29: 183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Carman
  • W. F. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Plants, Soils and Biometeorology DepartmentUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations