Advertisement

Wheat pp 593-614 | Cite as

High Protein Wheat

  • M. Feldman
  • L. Avivi
  • A. A. Levy
  • M. Zaccai
  • Y. Avivi
  • E. Millet
Chapter
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 13)

Abstract

Among the major crops, cereals constitute about 50% of the annual world protein production used for animal and human consumption (Hanson et al. 1982). Among cereals, wheat production exceeds all other crops, accounting for about 40% of the total protein production. Wheat, therefore, has the major contribution of any single crop to the world protein production (Harlan and Starks 1980). Naturally, the least expensive and most effective means of increasing protein production and upgrading its quality is through the improvement of wheat protein. This chapter deals primarily with the quantitative aspects of high protein wheat.

Keywords

Durum Wheat Breeding Line Spring Wheat Common Wheat Nitrate Reductase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aamodt OS, Torrie JH (1935) Studies on the inheritance of and the relation between kernel texture and protein content in several spring wheat crosses. Can J Res C 13: 202–219Google Scholar
  2. Aaronsohn A (1910) Agricultural botanical explorations in Palestine. Bull Plant Ind. US Dep Agric, Washington. DC 180: 1–63Google Scholar
  3. Ahokas H (1982) Variation of kernel protein and lysine in the wild progenitor of harley.Hereditas 96: 29–37Google Scholar
  4. Ausemus ER. McNeal FH, Schmidt JW (1967) Genetics and inheritance. In: Quisenberry KS. Reitz LP (eds) Wheat and wheat improvement. Am Soc Agron Madison, Wisc pp 225–267Google Scholar
  5. Austin RB (1982) Crop characteristics and potential yield of wheat. J Agric Sci Cambridge 98: 447–453Google Scholar
  6. Austin RB, Ford MA, Edrich JA, Blackwell RD (1977) The nitrogen economy of winter wheat. J Agric Sci Cambridge 88: 159–167Google Scholar
  7. Austin RB, Bingham J. Blackwell RD, Evans LT. Ford MA, Morgan CL. Taylor M (1980) Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes. J Agric Sci Cambridge 94:675–689Google Scholar
  8. Austin RB, Flavell RB. Henson 1E, Lowe HJB (1986) Molecular biology and crop improvement. Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Avivi L (1977) High grain protein content in wild wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 19: 569–570Google Scholar
  10. Avivi L (1978) High grain protein content in wild tetraploid wheat Triticum dicoccoides Korn. In: Proc 5th Int Wheat genetics Symp, New Delhi, pp 372–380Google Scholar
  11. Avivi L (1979) Utilization of Triticum dicoccoides for the improvement of grain protein quantity and quality in cultivated wheats. Monogr Genet Agr 4: 27–38Google Scholar
  12. Avivi L, Levy AA, Feldman M (1983) Studies on high protein durum wheat derived from crosses with the wild tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides. In: Proc 6th Int Wheat genetics Symp, Kyoto. pp 199–204Google Scholar
  13. Baker RJ, Bendelow VM. Kaufmann ML (1968) Inheritance of and interrelationships among yield and several quality traits in common wheat. Crop Sci 8:725–728Google Scholar
  14. Bhatia CR (1975) Criteria for early generation selection in wheat breeding programmes for improving protein productivity. Euphytica 24: 789–794Google Scholar
  15. Bhatia CR, Rabson R (1976) Bio-energetic considerations in cereal breeding for protein improvement. Science 194: 1418–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhatt GM. Derera NF (1975) Genotype x environment interactions for heritabilitiesof and correlations among quality traits in wheat. Euphytica 24: 597–604Google Scholar
  17. Bluthner WD, Mettin D (1982) Monosomic analysis of grain protein content and grain yield of the wheat cultivars Flandres Desprez and Klein Aniversario. Biol Zentralbl 101: 633–640Google Scholar
  18. Brunori A. Micke A (1979) Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in the developing seed of Triticum aestivum. In: Spiertz JHJ, Kramer T (eds) Crop physiology and cereal breeding. Proc EUCARPIA Worksh, Wageningen Neth, pp 156–160Google Scholar
  19. Brunori A. Axmann H. Figueroa A. Micke A (1980) Kinetics of nitrogen and dry matter accumulation in the developing seed of some varieties and mutant lines of Triticum aestivum. Z Pflanzenzucht 84: 201–218Google Scholar
  20. Brunori A. Figueroa A. Micke A (1984) Strategy of breeding for high grain protein content in Triticum aestivum In: IAEA (ed) Cereal grain protein improvement. IAEA, Vienna. pp 321–331Google Scholar
  21. Carpenter RW, Haas HJ, Miles EF (1952) Nitrogen uptake by wheat in relation to nitrogen content of soil. Agron J 44: 420–423Google Scholar
  22. Chapman SR, McNeal FH (1970) Gene effects for grain protein in five spring wheat crosses. Crop Sci 10: 45–46Google Scholar
  23. Corbellini M, Borghi B (1985) Accumulation and remobilization of dry matter and protein in four bread wheat varieties. J Agron Crop Sci 155: 1–11Google Scholar
  24. Corpuz LM, Paulsen GM, Heyne EG (1983) Relationship between kernel color and protein content of hard red X hard white winter wheat progeny. Euphytica 32: 617–624Google Scholar
  25. Cowley CR, Wells DG (1980) Inheritance of seed protein in crosses involving `Hand’, a hard red winter wheat. Crop Sci 20: 55–58Google Scholar
  26. Cox MC, Qualset CO. Rains DW (1985a) Genetic variation for nitrogen assimilation and translocation in wheat. I. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation Crop. Sci 25: 430–435Google Scholar
  27. Cox MC, Qualset CO, Rains DW (19856) Genetic variation for nitrogen assimilation and translocation in wheat. II. Nitrogen assimilation in relation to grain yield and protein. Crop Sci 25: 435–440Google Scholar
  28. Cox MC, Qualset CO, Rains DW (1986) Genetic variation for nitrogen assimilation and translocation in wheat. III. Nitrogen translocation in relation to grain yield and protein. Crop Sci 26: 737–740Google Scholar
  29. Dalling MJ, Boland G, Wilson JH (1976) Relation between acid proteinase activity and redistribution of nitrogen during grain development in wheat. Aust J Plant Physiol 3: 721–730Google Scholar
  30. Davis WH, Middleton GK, Hebert TT (1961) Inheritance of protein, texture and yield in wheat. Crop Sci 1: 235–238Google Scholar
  31. Day GE, Paulsen GM, Sears RG (1985) Nitrogen relations in winter wheat cultivars differing in grain protein percentage and stature. J Plant Nutrit 8: 555–566Google Scholar
  32. Desai RM, Bhatia CR (1978) Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen harvest index in durum wheat cultivars varying in their grain protein concentration. Euphytica 27: 561–566Google Scholar
  33. Diehl AL, Johnson VA, Mattem PJ (1978) Inheritance of protein and lysine in three wheat crosses. Crop Sci 18: 391–395Google Scholar
  34. Donovan GR (1979) Relationship between grain nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and nucleic acids during wheat grain development. Aust J Plant Physiol 6: 449–457Google Scholar
  35. Dubois J-B, Fossati A (1981) Influence of nitrogen uptake and nitrogen partitioning efficiency on grain yield and grain protein concentration of twelve winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.), Z Pflanzenzücht86: 41–49Google Scholar
  36. Edwards IB, Mey JA, van der Mey M (1978) Use of a physiologic model for genetically improving grain protein in wheat. Cereal Foods World 23: 596–600Google Scholar
  37. Eilrich GL, Hageman RH (1973) Nitrate reductase activity and its relationship to accumulation of vegetative and grain nitrogen in wheat. Crop Sci 13: 59–66Google Scholar
  38. Evans LT (1981) Yield improvement in wheat: empirical or analytical? In: Evans LT, Peacock WJ (eds) Wheat science — today and tomorrow. Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 203–222Google Scholar
  39. Feldman M (1976) Wheats. In: Simmonds NW (ed) Evolution of crop plants. Longman, London, pp 120–128Google Scholar
  40. Feldman M (1977) Historical aspects and significance of the discovery of wild wheats. Stadler Symp 9: 121–146Google Scholar
  41. Feldman M, Sears ER (1981) The wild gene resources of wheat. Sci Am 244: 102–112Google Scholar
  42. Fjell DL, Paulsen GM, Walter TL, Lawless JR (1984) Relationship among nitrogen and phosphorus contents of vegetative parts and agronomic traits of normal-and high-protein wheats. J Plant Nutrit 7: 1093–1102Google Scholar
  43. Frey KJ, Cox TS, Rodgers DM, Bromel-Cox P (1984) Increasing cereal yields with genes from wild and weedy species. In: Chopra VL, Joshi BC, Sharma RP, Bansal HC (eds) Genetics: new frontiers. 15th Int Congr Genetics, vol 4: Applied genetics. Bowker, Epping, UK, pp 51–68Google Scholar
  44. Gallagher LW, Soliman KM, Qualset CO, Huffaker RC, Rains DW (1980) Major gene control of nitrate reductase activity in common wheat. Crop Sci 20: 717–721Google Scholar
  45. Gregory PG, Marshall B, Biscoe PV (1981) Nutrient relations of winter wheat. 3. Nitrogen uptake, photosynthesis of flag leaves and translocation of nitrogen to grains. J Agric Sci Cambridge 96: 539–547Google Scholar
  46. Hageman RH, Lambert RJ, Loussaert D, Dalling M, Klepper LA (1976) Nitrate and nitrate reductase as factors limiting protein synthesis. In: Genetic improvement of seed proteins. ProcGoogle Scholar
  47. Worksh Washington 1974, Nat Acad Sci, Washington, DC, pp 103–131Google Scholar
  48. Halloran GM (1975) Genetic analysis of grain protein percentage in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 46: 79–86Google Scholar
  49. Halloran GM (1976) Genetic analysis of hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum using intervarietal chromosome substitution lines — protein content and grain weight. Euphytica 25: 65–71Google Scholar
  50. Halloran GM (1981) Grain yield and protein relationship in a wheat cross. Crop Sci 21: 699–701Google Scholar
  51. Hanson H, Borlaug NE, Anderson RG (1982) Wheat in the Third World. Westview, Boulder, ColGoogle Scholar
  52. Harlan JR, Starks KJ (1980) Germplasm resources and needs. In: Maxwell FG, Jennings PR (eds) Breeding plants resistant to insects. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 254–273Google Scholar
  53. Haunold A, Johnson VA, Schmidt JW (1962) Genetic measurements of protein in the grain of Triticum aestivum L. Agron J 54: 203–206Google Scholar
  54. Herzog H, Stamp P (1982) Chlorophyll content and RuBP carboxylase activity in assimilating organs in relation to grain growth of gigas semidwarf and normal spring wheats. Z Pflanzenzücht 88: 127–136Google Scholar
  55. Herzog H, Stamp P (1983) Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in grains at different ear positions in gigas, semidwarf and normal spring wheats. Euphytica 32: 511–520Google Scholar
  56. Hewitt EJ (1979) Primary nitrogen assimilation from nitrate with special reference to cereals. In: Spiertz JHJ, Kramer T (eds) Crop physiology and cereal breeding. Proc EUCARPIA Worksh, Wageningen 1978. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 139–155Google Scholar
  57. Hsu SC, Sosulski FW (1969) Inheritance of protein content and sedimentation value in diallel crosses of spring wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 11: 967–976Google Scholar
  58. Hucklesbly D, Brown CM, Howell JE, Hageman RH (1971) Late spring application of nitrogen for efficient utilization and enhanced production of grain and grain protein of wheat. Agron J 63: 274–276Google Scholar
  59. Jastra DS, Solanki KR, Singh DP, Yadav JS (1978) Gene action for grain protein in wheat. Cereal Res Commun 6: 273–275Google Scholar
  60. Johnson VA (1977) Wheat protein. In: Muhammed A, Aksel R, Borstel von RC (eds) Genetic diversity in plants. Plenum, New York, pp 371–385Google Scholar
  61. Johnson VA, Mattem Pi, Schmidt JW (1967) Nitrogen relations during spring growth in varieties of Triticum aestivum L. differing in grain protein content. Crop Sci 7: 664–667Google Scholar
  62. Johnson VA, Schmidt JW, Mattem PJ (1968) Cereal breeding for better protein impact. Econ Bot 22: 16–25Google Scholar
  63. Johnson VA, Mattem PJ, Whited DA, Schmidt JW (1969) Breeding for high protein content and quality in wheat. In: Proc FAO/ IAEA Panel on new approaches to breeding for plant protein improvement, Rostanga, Sweden, pp 29–40Google Scholar
  64. Johnson VA, Mattem PJ, Schmidt JW, Stroike JE (1973a) Genetic advances in wheat protein quantity and composition. In: Proc 4th Int Wheat genetics Symp, Univ Missouri, Columbia, pp 547–556Google Scholar
  65. Johnson VA, Mattem PJ, Vogel KP (1973b) Cultural genetic and other factors affecting quality of wheat. In: Spicer A (ed), Bread: social, nutritional and agricultural aspects of wheat bread. Applied Science Publ, London, pp 127–140Google Scholar
  66. Johnson VA, Wilhelmi KD, Kuhr SL, Mattem PJ, Schmidt JW (1978) Breeding progress for protein and lysine in wheat. In: Proc 5th Int Wheat genetics Symp, New Delhi, pp 825–835Google Scholar
  67. Johnson VA, Mattem PJ, Kuhr SL (1979) Genetic improvement of wheat protein. In: IAEA (ed) Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. II 165–181. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  68. Kibite S, Evans LE (1984) Causes of negative correlations between grain yield and grain protein concentration in common wheat. Euphytica 33: 801–810Google Scholar
  69. Kimber G, Feldman M (1987) Wild wheat. An introduction. Coll Agric, Univ Missouri-Columbia, Spec Rep 353Google Scholar
  70. Kraljevic-Balalic M, Stajner D, Gasic O (1982) Inheritance of grain proteins in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 63: 121–124Google Scholar
  71. Kramer T (1979) Environmental and genetic variation for protein content in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 28: 209–218Google Scholar
  72. Kramer T (1983) Genetic variation in protein content of vegetative parts in spring wheat. In: Proc 10th EUCARPIA Conf, Wageningen, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  73. Kushnir U, Halloran GM (1984) Plant nitrogen distribution in wild tetraploid (Triticum turgidum dicoccoides) and hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). Euphytica 33: 641–649Google Scholar
  74. Ladizinsky G, Fainstein R (1977) Domestication of the protein-rich tetraploid wild oats, A vena magna and A. murphyi. Euphytica 26: 221–223Google Scholar
  75. Lelley J (1976) Wheat breeding, theory and practice. Akademia Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  76. Lerner IM (1950) Population genetics and animal improvement. Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  77. Levy AA, Feldman M (1985) Genotypic and fertilization effects on grain protein content in wild and cultivated tetraploid wheat. Genet Agr 39: 293–302Google Scholar
  78. Levy AA, Feldman M (1987) Increase in grain protein percentage in high-yielding common wheat breeding lines by genes from wild tetraploid wheat. Euphytica 36: 353–359Google Scholar
  79. Levy AA, Feldman M (1989a) Genetics of morphological traits in wild wheat, Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides. Euphytica 40: 275–281Google Scholar
  80. Levy AA, Feldman M (1989b) Location of genes for high grain protein percentage and other quantitative traits in wild wheat Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides. Euphytica 41: 113–122Google Scholar
  81. Levy AA, Feldman M (1989c) Intra-and inter-population variations in grain protein percentage in wild tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides. Euphytica 42: 251–258Google Scholar
  82. Levy AA, Braun D, Feldman M (1988a) Evaluation of the effect of alien chromosomes on quantitative traits in common wheat. Genome 30: 265–268Google Scholar
  83. Levy AA, Galili G, Feldman M (1985) The effect of additions of Aegilops longissima chromosomes on grain protein in common wheat. Theor Appl Genet 69: 429–435Google Scholar
  84. Levy AA, Zaccai M, Millet E, Feldman M (1988b) Utilization of wild emmer for the improvement of grain protein percentage of cultivated wheat. In: Proc 7th Int Wheat genetics Symp, Cambridge, pp 969–974Google Scholar
  85. Loftier CM, Busch RH (1982) Selection for grain protein, grain yield, and nitrogen partitioning efficiency in hard red spring wheat. Crop Sci 22: 591–595Google Scholar
  86. Loffier CM, Rauch TL, Busch RH (1985) Grain and plant protein relationships in hard red spring wheat. Crop Sci 25: 521–524Google Scholar
  87. Lofgren JR, Finney KF, Heyne EG, Bolte LC, Hoseney RC, Shogren MD (1968) Heritability estimates of protein content and certain quality and agronomic properties in bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Sci 8: 563–567Google Scholar
  88. Mather K, Jinks JL (1971) Biometrical genetics, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. McNeal FH, Berg MA, Watson CA (1966) Nitrogen and dry matter in five spring wheat varieties at successive stages of development. Agron J 58: 605–608Google Scholar
  90. McNeal FH, Boatwright GO, Berg MA, Watson CA (1968) Nitrogen in plant parts of seven spring wheat varieties at successive stages of development. Crop Sci 8: 535–537Google Scholar
  91. McNeal FH, Berg MA, McGuire CF, Stewart VR, Baldridge DE (1972) Grain and plant nitrogen relationships in eight spring wheat crosses, Triticum aestivum L. Crop Sci 12: 599–602Google Scholar
  92. McNeal FH, McGuire CF, Berg MA (1978) Recurrent selection for grain protein content in spring wheat. Crop Sci 18: 779–782Google Scholar
  93. Mesdag J (1979) Genetic variation in grain yield and protein content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In: Spiertz JHJ, Kramer T (eds) Crop physiology and cereal breeding. Proc EUCARPIA Worksh, Wageningen, pp 166–167Google Scholar
  94. Middleton GK, Bode CE, Boyles BB (1954) A comparison of the quantity and quality of protein in certain wheat varieties of soft wheat. Agron J 46: 500–502Google Scholar
  95. Miezan K, Heyne EG, Finney KF (1977) Genetic and environmental effects on the grain protein content in wheat. Crop Sci 17: 591–593Google Scholar
  96. Mihaljer I, Kovacev-Djolai M (1978) Inheritance of grain protein content in a diallel wheat cross. In: Proc 5th Int Wheat genetics Symp, New Delhi, pp 755–761Google Scholar
  97. Mikesell ME, Paulsen GM (1971) Nitrogen translocation and the role of individual leaves in protein accumulation in wheat grain. Crop Sci 11: 919–922Google Scholar
  98. Millet E, Levy AA, Avivi L, Zamir R, Feldman M (1984) Evidence for maternal effect in the inheritance of grain protein in crosses between cultivated and wild tetraploid wheats. Theor Appl Genet 67: 521–524Google Scholar
  99. Mitra R, Bhatia CR (1984) Flag leaf senescence in high grain protein wheat genotypes. In: IAEA (ed) Cereal grain protein improvement. IAEA, Vienna, pp 333–344Google Scholar
  100. Morris CF, Paulsen GM (1985) Development of hard winter wheat after anthesis as affected by nitrogen nutrition. Crop Sci 25: 1007–1010Google Scholar
  101. Morris R, Sears ER (1967) The cytogenetics of wheat and its relatives. In: Quisenberry KS, Reitz LP (eds) Wheat and wheat improvement. Am Soc Agron, Madison, pp 19–87Google Scholar
  102. Novoa R, Loomis RS (1981) Nitrogen and plant production in soil, water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments. In: Monteith J, Webl C (eds) Developments in plant and soil science, vol 1. Nijhoff/Junk, New York, pp 177–204Google Scholar
  103. Oh JY, Warner RL, Kleinhofs A (1980) Effect of nitrate reductase deficiency upon growth, yield and protein in barley. Crop Sci 20: 487–490Google Scholar
  104. Patterson TG, Moss DN (1979) Senescence in field grown wheat. Crop Sci 19: 635–640Google Scholar
  105. Patterson TG, Moss DN, Brun WA (1980) Enzymatic changes during senescence of field grown wheat. Crop Sci 20: 15–18Google Scholar
  106. Pearman I, Thomas SM, Thorne GN (1977) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of spring wheat. Ann Bot (London) 41: 93–108Google Scholar
  107. Pearman I, Thomas SM, Thorne GN (1978) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the distribution of photosynthates during grain growth of spring wheat. Ann Bot (London) 42: 91–99Google Scholar
  108. Rao KP, Rains DW, Qualset CO, Huffaker RC (1977) Nitrogen nutrition and grain protein in two spring wheat genotypes differing in nitrate reductase activity. Crop Sci 17: 283–286Google Scholar
  109. Sandfaer J, Haahr V (1975) Barley stripe mosaic virus and the yield of old and new barley varieties. Z Pflanzenzücht 74: 211–222Google Scholar
  110. Schlehuber AM, Tucker BB (1959) Factors affecting the protein content of wheat. Cereal Sci Today 4: 240–242Google Scholar
  111. Scholz F (1984a) Some problems and implications in improving cereal grain protein by plant breeding. Kulturpflanze 32: 5193–5203Google Scholar
  112. Scholz F (1984b) Possibilities and limiting conditions for the genetic improvement of protein yield in cereals with particular reference to nitrogen balance and requirements. In: IAEA (ed) Cereal grain protein improvement. IAEA, Vienna, pp 269–277Google Scholar
  113. Sharma HC, Waines JG, Foster KW (1981) Variability in primitive and wild wheats for useful genetic characters. Crop Sci 21: 555–559Google Scholar
  114. Simmons SR, Moss DN (1978) Nitrate reductase as a factor affecting N assimilation during the grain filling period in spring wheat. Crop Sci 18: 584–586Google Scholar
  115. Simpson RJ, Lambers H, Dalling MJ (1982) Translocation of nitrogen in a vegetative wheat plant (Triticum aestivum). Physiol Plant 56: 11–17Google Scholar
  116. Simpson RJ, Lambers H, Dalling MJ (1983) Nitrogen redistribution during grain growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Development of a quantitative model of the translocation of nitrogen to the grain. Plant Physiol 71: 7–14Google Scholar
  117. Stamp P, Geisler G (1978) Die Stickstoffaufnahme and das Wachstum der Körner bei zwei Sommerweizensorten. Z Acker Pflanzenb 147: 255–263Google Scholar
  118. Stoy V (1965) Photosynthesis, respiration and carbohydrate accumulation in spring wheat in relation to yield. Physiol Plant Suppl4: 1–125Google Scholar
  119. Stuber CW, Johnson VA, Schmidt JW (1962) Grain protein content and the relationship to other plant and seed characters in the parents and progeny of a cross of Triticum aestivum L. Crop Sci 2: 506–508Google Scholar
  120. Sunderman D, Wise M, Sneed EM (1965) Interrelationships of wheat protein content, flour sedimentation value, farinograph peak time and dough mixing and baking characteristics in F. and F., generations of winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Crop Sci 5: 537–540Google Scholar
  121. Terman GL, Ramig RE, Dreier AF, Olson RA (1969) Yield-protein relationships in wheat grain, as affected by nitrogen and water. Agron J 61: 755–759Google Scholar
  122. Thomas SM, Thorne GN, Pearman I (1978) Effect of nitrogen on growth, yield and photorespiratory activity in spring wheat. Ann Bot (London) 42: 827–837Google Scholar
  123. Vogel KP, Johnson VA, Mattem PJ (1973) Results of systematic analyses for protein and lysine composition of common wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) in the USDA World Collection. Nebr Res Bull 258: 1–27Google Scholar
  124. Vogel KP, Johnson VA, Mattem PJ (1975) Re-evaluation of common wheats from the USDA World Wheat Collection for protein and lysine content. Nebr Res Bull 272: 1–36Google Scholar
  125. Waters SP, Peoples MB, Simpson RJ, Dalling MJ (1980) Nitrogen redistribution during grain growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). I. Peptide hydrolase activity and protein breakdown in the flag leaf, glumes and stems. Planta 148: 422–428Google Scholar
  126. Worzella WW (1942) Inheritance and inter-relationship of components of quality, cold resistance and morphological characters in wheat hybrids. J Agric Res 65: 501–522Google Scholar
  127. Zaccai M, Pinthus MJ, Levy AA (1987) The effect of the Rhtl gene on grain protein content in tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum. J Cereal Sci 6: 27–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Feldman
    • 1
  • L. Avivi
    • 2
  • A. A. Levy
    • 1
  • M. Zaccai
    • 1
  • Y. Avivi
    • 1
  • E. Millet
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant GeneticsThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.Human GeneticsSackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv UniversityRamat-Aviv, Tel-AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations