Advertisement

Wheat pp 269-282 | Cite as

Growth of Wheat Ears in Liquid Culture

  • G. R. Donovan
  • B. T. Lee
  • J. W. Lee
Chapter
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 13)

Abstract

The growth of cereal grains under defined nutritional and environmental conditions has many advantages for investigational purposes. Normally the developing seed will depend on the vegetative parts of the plant for its supply of its carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, and other minor constituents although a minor amount of photosynthesis, or at least carbon dioxide refixation, may occur in the seed coat. The range of techniques for the study of plant development ranges from the use of whole plants from crops or pot experiments to the use of plant cell culture or even cell-free synthesis of plant constituents. In choosing a source of plant tissue for study, the investigator must always balance with the aims of his experiments, the simplification of the system against the possibility that the behavior observed may not truly reflect the normal state of development in a whole plant or crop situation. The culture of plant organs can, however, be very useful in providing quick answers to questions concerning the response of that organ, or parts of it, to nutritional or other environmental perturbation. Ideally, studies of nutritional and environmental factors on grain development, uncomplicated by interactions with other parts of the plant, would best be carried out by culturing the isolated caryopsis. Gifford and Bremner (1981 a,b) were able to obtain linear growth with cultured wheat kernels for up to 1 week provided the outer pericarp was removed. Without removal of the outer pericarp or some other form of surgery, assimilate did not appear to be able to enter the detached developing grain. Normally sucrose would be transported into and along the grain via the phloem (Sakri and Shannon 1975). Millerd et al. (1975) removed both the seed coats and embryonic axes before growing pea cotyledons in liquid culture, again indicating the necessity of providing alternative access for the various nutrients to the growing tissue.

Keywords

Seed Coat Liquid Culture Sucrose Concentration Ammonium Nitrate Flag Leaf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldev B, Lang A, Agatep AO (1965) Gibberellin production in pea seeds developing in excised pods: effect of growth retardent AMO-1618. Science 179: 155–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barlow EWR, Donovan GR, Lee JW (1983) Water relations and composition of wheat ears grown in liquid culture: Effect of carbon and nitrogen. Aust J Plant Physiol 10: 99–108Google Scholar
  3. Campbell WP, Lee JW, O’Brien TP, Smart MG (1981) Endosperm morphology and protein body formation in developing wheat grain. Aust J Plant Physiol 8: 5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Donovan GR (1979) Relationship between grain nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and nucleic acids during grain development. Aust J Plant Physiol 6: 449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Donovan GR, Lee JW (1977) The growth of detached wheat heads in liquid culture. Plant Sci Lett 9: 107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donovan GR, Lee JW (1978) Effect of the nitrogen source on grain development in detached wheat heads in liquid culture. Aust J Plant Physiol 5: 81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donovan GR, Jenner CF, Lee JW, Martin P (1983a) Longitudinal transport of sucrose and amino acids in the wheat grain. Aust J Plant Physiol 10: 31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Donovan GR, Lee JW, Longhurst TJ, Martin P (1983b) Effect of temperature on grain growth and protein accumulation in cultured wheat ears. Aust J Plant Physiol 10: 445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gifford RM, Bremner PM (1981a) Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. I. Liquid culture of kernels over several days. Aust J Plant Physiol 8: 619–629Google Scholar
  10. Gifford RM, Bremner PM (198 lb) Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. II. Light requirement for kernels cultured in vitro. Aust J Plant Physiol 8: 631–640Google Scholar
  11. Graham JSD, Morton RK (1963) Studies of proteins of developing wheat endosperm: Separation by starch gel electrophoresis and incorporation of ‘5S-sulphate. Aust J Biol Sci 16: 357–365Google Scholar
  12. Jenner CF (1968) Synthesis of starch in detached ears of wheat. Aust J Biol Sci 21: 597–608Google Scholar
  13. Lazan HB, Barlow EWR, Brady CJ (1983) The significance of vascular connection in regulating senescence of the detached flag leaf of wheat. J Exp Bot 34: 726–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee JW (1978) Influence of nitrogen source on nitrogen metabolism in detached wheat heads. Aust J Plant Physiol 5: 779–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lesar LE, Peterson DM (1981) Growth and composition of kernels developing on excised oat panicles in liquid culture. Crop Sci 21: 741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Linsmaier EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 18: 100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Millerd A, Spencer D, Dudman WF, Stiller M (1975) Growth of immature pea cotyledons in culture. Aust J Plant Physiol 2: 51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Neumann PM, Tucker AT, Nooden LD (1983) Characterization of leaf senescence and pod development in soybean explants. Plant Physiol 72: 182–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. O’Brien TP, Sammut ME, Lee JW, Smart MG (1985) The vascular system of the wheat spikelet. Aust J Plant Physiol 12: 487–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sakri FAK, Shannon JC (1975) Movement of “C-labelled sugars into kernels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Physiol 55: 881–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shannon JC, Dougherty CT (1972) Movement of“C-labelled assimilates into kernels of Zea mays L. II. Invertase activity of the pedicel and placento-chalazal tissues. Plant Physiol 49: 203–206Google Scholar
  22. Singh BK, Jenner CF (1983) Culture of detached ears of wheat in liquid culture: Modification and extension of the method. Aust J Plant Physiol 10: 227–236Google Scholar
  23. Singh BK, Jenner CF (1984) Factors controlling endosperm cell number and grain dry weight in wheat: Effects of shading on intact plants and of variation in nutritional supply to detached, cultured ears. Aust J Plant Physiol 11: 151–163Google Scholar
  24. Sofield I, Wardlaw IF, Evans LT, Zee S-Y (1977) Nitrogen, phosphorus and water contents during grain development and maturation in wheat. Aust J Plant Physiol 4: 799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zee S-Y, O’Brien TP (1970) A special type of tracheary element associated with “xylem discontinuity” in the floral axis of wheat. Aust J Biol Sci 23: 783–791Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Donovan
    • 1
  • B. T. Lee
    • 2
  • J. W. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant IndustryWheat Research Unit, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganizationNorth RydeAustralia
  2. 2.Rothamsted Experiment StationHarpenden, HertsUK

Personalised recommendations