Trees IV pp 172-193 | Cite as

Fraxinus excelsior L. (Common Ash)

  • N. Hammatt
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 35)


Fraxinus (family Oleaceae) is a genus of approximately 50 species of hardwood trees and shrubs found in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia and N. America. Although there are several Fraxinus spp. growing in Europe, only common ash (F. excelsior L.) is found in woodlands in the British Isles (Fig. la). Important North American species include F. americana (white ash) and F. pennsylvanica (green ash). Typically, common ash trees have pinnately compound leaves (Fig. lb) arranged in alternately opposite pairs. Apetalous flowers are borne in axillary panicles, and each consists of a single ovary containing four ovules, of which only one usually develops into a seed. The fruits develop into samaras which persist in clusters (Fig. 1c) on the tree often long after leaf-fall, and are eventually dispersed by wind.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Adventitious Shoot Indole Butyric Acid Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Hammatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Horticulture Research InternationalWellesbourne WarwickUK

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