Advertisement

Cell-Mediated Immunity

  • Juneann W. Murphy
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 6)

Abstract

CMI responses are key host protective responses against mycotic agents. Thus, to comprehend fully the means by which fungal pathogens are eliminated from the body, it is important to understand thoroughly the interactions of the cells with cell-produced soluble factors (cytokines) that are involved in the CMI response directed against the specific fungal pathogen. Like all immune responses, any given CMI response must be induced in the host by the specific organism before it is functional. This means that if the host has not previously encountered the specific fungus, then the host will not have memory T cells directed toward that organism and will not display a specific CMI response against that fungal agent. However, upon first entry of the organism into the body, the immunocompetent host generally develops a CMI response directed against the fungus.

Keywords

Cryptococcus Neoformans Cryptococcal Antigen Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Candida Antigen Mucosal Candidiasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akbar AN, Salmon M, Janossy G (1991) The synergy between naive and memory T cells during activation. Immunol Today 12:184–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbar AN, Salmon M, Savill J, Janossy G (1993) A possible role for bcl-2 in regulating T-cell memory -a “balancing act” between cell death and survival. Immunol Today 14:526–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ampel NM, Bejarano GC, Salas SD, Galgiani JN (1992) In vitro assessment of cellular immunity in human coccidioidomycosis: relationship between dermal hypersensitivity, lymphocyte transformation, and lymphokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy adults. J Infect Dis 165:710–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ampel NM, Dols CL, Galgiani JN (1993) Coccidioidomycosis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: results of a prospective study in a coccidioidal endemic area. Am J Med 94:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnaiz-Villena A, Timon M, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Perez-Bias M, Corell A, Martin-Villa JM, Regueiro JR (1992) Human T-cell activation deficiencies. Immunol Today 13:259–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashman RB (1990) Murine candidiasis: cell-mediated immune responses correlate directly with susceptibility and resistance to infection. Immunol Cell Biol 68:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashman RB, Papadimitriou JM (1990) What’s new in the mechanisms of host resistance to Candida albicans infection? Path Res Pract 186:527–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson AJ, Bennett JE (1968) Experience with a new skin test antigen prepared from Cryptococcus neoformans. Am Rev Respir Dis 97:637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Balish E, Filutowicz H, Oberley TD (1990) Correlates of cell-mediated immunity in Candida albicans-colonized gnotobiotic mice. Infect Immun 58:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaman L (1987) Fungicidal activation of murine macrophages by recombinant gamma interferon. Infect Immun 55:2951–2955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaman L, Pappagianis D, Banjamini E (1977) Significance of T cells in resistance to experimental murine coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 17:580–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beaman L, Pappagianis D, Banjamini E (1979) Mechanisms of resistance to infection with Coccidioides immitis in mice. Infect Immun 23:681–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaman L, Banjamini E, Pappagianis D (1981) Role of lymphocytes in macrophage-induced killing of Coccidioides immitis in vitro. Infect Immun 34:347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beaman L, Banjamini E, Pappagianis D (1983) Activation of macrophages by lymphokines: enhancement of phagosome-lysosome fusion and killing of Coccidioides immitis. Infect Immun 39:1201–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennett JE, Hasenclever HF, Baum GL (1965) Evaluation of a skin test for cryptococcosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 91:616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bistoni F, Cenci E, Mencacci A, Schiaffella E, Mosci P, Puccetti P, Romani L (1993) Mucosal and systemic T helper cell function after intragastric colonization of adult mice with Candida albicans. J Infect Dis 168: 1449–1457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackstock R, Hall NK (1984) Nonspecific immune suppression by Cryptococcus neoformans infection. My-copathologia 86:35–43Google Scholar
  18. Blackstock R, Hernandez NC (1988) Inhibition of phagocytosis in cryptococcosis: phenotypic analysis of the suppressor cell. Cell Immunol 114:174–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blackstock R, Hernandez NC (1989) Characterization of the macrophage subset affected and its response to a T suppressor factor (TsFmp) found in cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 57:2931–2937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Blackstock R, McCormack JM, Hall NK (1987) Induction of a macrophage-suppressive lymphokine by soluble cryptococcal antigens and its association with models of immunological tolerance. Infect Immun 55:233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blackstock R, Hall NK, Hernandez NC (1989) Characterization of a suppressor factor that regulates macrophage phagocytosis in murine cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 57:1773–1779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blackstock R, Zembala M, Asherson GL (1991a) Functional equivalence of cryptococcal and hapten-specific T suppressor factor (TsF). I. Picryl and oxazolone-specific TsF, which inhibit transfer of contact sensitivity also inhibit phagocytosis by a subset of macrophages. Cell Immunol 136:435–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blackstock R, Zembala M, Asherson GL (1991b) Functional equivalence of cryptococcal and hapten-specific T suppressor factor (TsF). II. Monoclonal anti-crypto-coccal TsF inhibits both phagocytosis by a subset of macrophages and transfer of contact sensitivity. Cell Immunol 136:448–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blanchard DK, Michelini-Norris MB, Djeu JY (1991) Production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor by large granular lymphocytes stimulated with Candida albicans: role in activation of human neutrophil function. Blood 77:2259–2265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blasi E, Farinelli S, Varesio L, Bistoni F (1990) Augmentation of GG2EE macrophage cell line-mediated anti-Candida activity by gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1. Infect Immun 58: 1073–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brummer E, Stevens DA (1987) Activation of pulmonary macrophages for fungicidal activity by gamma-interferon or lymphokines. Clin Exp Immunol 70:520–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brummer E, Beaman L, Stevens DA (1985) Killing of endospores, but not arthroconidia, of Coccidioides immitis by immunologically activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In: Einstein HE, Catanzaro A (eds) Proc 4th Int Conf Coccidioidomycosis, National Foundation for Infectious Disease, Washington, DC, pp 201–213Google Scholar
  28. Brunda MJ (1994) Interleukin-12. J Leukoc Biol 55:280–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Buchanan KL, Murphy JW (1993) Characterization of cellular infiltrates and cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect Immun 61:2854–2865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buchanan KL, Murphy JW (1994) Regulation of cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect Immun 62:2930–2939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buchanan KL, Fidel PL Jr, Murphy JW (1991) Effects of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific suppressor T cells on the amplified anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect Immun 59:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Buckley RH, Lucas ZJ, Hattler ßG Jr, Zmijewski CJ, Amos DB (1968) Defective cellular immunity associated with chronic mucocutaneous moniliasis and recurrent staphylococcal botromycosis: immunologic reconstitution by allogeneic bone marrow. Clin Exp Immunol 3:153–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bullock WE, Wright SD (1987) Role of adherence-promoting receptors, CR3, LFA-1, and pl50,95 in binding of Histoplasma capsulatum by human macrophages. J Exp Med 165:195–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cantorna MT, Balish E (1990) Mucosal and systemic candidiasis in congenitally immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 58:1093–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cantorna MT, Balish E (1991) Role of CD4+ lymphocytes in resistance to mucosal candidiasis. Infect Immun 59: 2447–2455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Catanzaro A (1981) Suppressor cells in coccidioidomycosis. Cell Immunol 64:235–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Catanzaro A, Spitler LE, Moser KM (1975) Cellular immune response in coccidioidomycosis. Cell Immunol 15:360–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cauley LK, Murphy JW (1979) Response of congenitally athymic (nude) and phenotypically normal mice to Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect Immun 23: 644–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cenci E, Romani L, Vecchiarelli A, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1989) Role of L3T4+ lymphocytes in protective immunity to systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. Infect Immun 57:3581–3587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cenci E, Romani L, Vecchiarelli A, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1990) T cell subsets and IFN-γ production in resistance to systemic candidosis in immunized mice. J Immunol 144:4333–4339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cenci E, Romani L, Mencacci A, Spaccapelo R, Schiaffella E, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1993) Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 inhibit nitric oxide-dependent macrophage killing of Candida albicans. Eur J Immunol 23:1034–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chavin KD, Bromberg JS, Kunkel SL, Naji A, Baker CF (1991) Effects of a polyclonal anti-TNF antibody on cell-mediated immunity in vivo. Transplant Proc 23:847–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chen GH, Curtis JL, Mody CH, Christensen PJ, Armstrong LR, Toews GB (1994) Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on rat alveolar macrophage anticryptococcal activity in vitro. J Immunol 152:724–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Clemons KV, Brummer E, Stevens DA (1994) Cytokine treatment of central nervous system infection: efficacy of interleukin-12 alone and synergy with conventional antifungal therapy in experimental cryptococcosis Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:360–464Google Scholar
  45. Clerici M, Shearer GM (1993) A Thl → Th2 switch is a critical step in the etiology of HIV infection. Immunol Today 14:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cohen JJ, Duke RC (1992) Apoptosis and programmed cell death in immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 10:267–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Collins HL, Bancroft GJ (1992) Cytokine enhancement of complement-dependent phagocytosis by macrophages: synergy of tumor necrosis factor-a and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur J Immunol 22:1447–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Converse JL, Castleberry MW, Snyder EM (1963) Experimental viable vaccine against pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in monkeys. J Bacteriol 86:1041–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cox FEG, Liew FY (1992) T-cell subsets and cytokines in parasitic infections. Immunol Today 13:445–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cox RA (1993) Coccidioidomycosis. In: Murphy JW, Friedman H, Bendinelli M (eds) Fungal infections and immune responses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 173–211Google Scholar
  51. Cox RA, Kennell W (1988) Suppression of T-lymphocyte response by Coccidioides immitis antigen. Infect Immun 56:1424–1429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cox RA, Pope RM (1987) Serum-mediated suppression of lymphocyte transformation responses in coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 55:1058–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cox RA, Vivas JR (1977) Spectrum of in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune responses in coccidioidomycosis. Cell Immunol 31:130–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cox RA, Kennel W, Boncyk L, Murphy JW (1988) Induction and expression of cell-mediated immune responses in inbred mice infected with Coccidioides immitis. Infect Immun 56:13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cox RA, Magee DM, Alaniz R (1994) Role of interferon-gamma in resistance to Coccidioides immitis (submitted)Google Scholar
  56. Deepe GS Jr (1988) Protective immunity in murine histoplasmosis: functional comparison of adoptively transferred T-cell clones and splenic T cells. Infect Immun 56:2350–2355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. de Repentigny L, Phaneuf M, Mathieu LG (1992) Gastrointestinal colonization and systemic dissemination of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in intact and immunocompromised mice. Infect Immun 60:4907–4914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Diamond RD, Bennett JE (1973) Disseminated cryptococcosis in man: decreases lymphocyte transformation in response to Cryptococcus neoformans. J Infect Dis 127:694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Diamond RD, Lyman CA, Wysong DR (1991) Disparate effects of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-a on early neutrophil respiratory burst and fungicidal responses to Candida albicans hyphae in vitro. J Clin Invest 87:711–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Djeu JY (1992) Cytokines and anti-fungal immunity. Adv Exp Med Biol 319:217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Djeu JY, Blanchard DK, Halkias D, Friedman H (1986) Growth inhibition of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils: activation by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 137:2980–2984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Djeu JY, Liu JH, Wei S, Rui H, Pearson CA, Leonard WJ, Blanchard DK (1993) Function associated with IL-2 receptor-β on human neutrophils. J Immunol 150: 960–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Domer J, Garner R, Befidi-Mengue R (1989) Mannan as an antigen in cell-mediated immune (CMI) assays and as a modulator of mannan-specific CMI. Infect Immun 57:693–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Domer JE (1988) Intragastric colonization of infant mice with Candida albicans induces systemic immunity demonstrable upon challenge as adults. J Infect Dis 157: 950–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Domer JE, Carrow EW (1989) Candidiasis. In: Cox RA (ed) Immunology of the fungal diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 57–92Google Scholar
  66. Domer JE, Lehrer RI (1993) Introduction to Candida: systemic candidiasis. In: Murphy JW, Friedman H, Bendinelli M (eds) Fungal infections and immune responses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 49–116Google Scholar
  67. Drutz D, Catanzaro A (1978) Coccidioidomycosis. I. State of the art. Am Rev Respir Dis 117:559–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Dunn PL, North RJ (1991) Early gamma interferon production by natural killer cells is important in defense against murine listeriosis. Infect Immun 59:2892–2900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Edwards LB, Acquavira FA, Livesay VT, Cross FW, Palmer CE (1969) An atlas of sensitivity to tuberculin, PPD-B, and histoplasmin in the United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 99:1–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ekenna O, Sherertz RJ (1987) Factors affecting colonization and dissemination of Candida albicans from the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Infect Immun 55:1558–1563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fidel PL Jr, Murphy JW (1989) Effects of cyclosporin A on the cells responsible for the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response and its regulation. Infect Immun 57:1158–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fidel PL Jr, Murphy JW (1990) Characterization of a cell population which amplifies the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect Immun 58:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fidel PL Jr, Sobel JD (1994) The role of cell-mediated immunity in candidasis. Trends Microbiol 2:202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Fidel PL Jr, Lynch ME, Sobel JD (1993) Candida-specific cell-mediated immunity is demonstrable in mice with experimental vaginal candidiasis. Infect Immun 61: 1990–1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fidel PL Jr, Lynch ME, Sobel JD (1994) Candida-specific Thl-type responsiveness in mice with experimental vaginal candidiasis. Infect Immun 61:4202–4207Google Scholar
  76. Fischer A, Ballet JJ, Griscelli C (1978) Specific inhibition of in vitro Candida-induced lymphocyte proliferation by polysaccharidic antigens present in the serum of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. J Clin Invest 62:1005–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fitch FW, McKisic MD, Lancki DW, Gajewski TF (1993) Differential regulation of murine T lymphocyte subsets. Annu Rev Immunol 11:29–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fleischman J, Wu-Hsieh B, Howard DH (1990) The intracellular fate of Histoplasma capsulatum in human macrophages is unaffected by recombinant human interferon-γ. J Infect Dis 161:143–145Google Scholar
  79. Flesch IE, Schwamberger G, Kaufmann SH (1989) Fungicidal activity of IFN-y-activated macrophages. Extracellular killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 142:3219–3224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Flesch IEA, Kaufmann SHE (1990) Activation of tuberculostatic macrophage function by gamma interferon, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor. Infect Immun 58:2675–2677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Flynn NM, Hoeprich PD, Kawachi MM, Lee KK, Lawrence RM, Goldstein E, Jordan GW, Kundargi RS, Wong GA (1979) An unusual outbreak of wind-borne coccidioidomycosis. N Engl J Med 301:358–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fung PY, Murphy JW (1982) In vitro interactions of immune lymphocytes and Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 36:1128–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Garner RE, Childress AM, Human LG, Domer JE (1990) Characterization of Candida albicans mannan-induced, mannan-specific delayed hypersensitivity suppressor cells. Infect Immun 588:2613–2620Google Scholar
  84. Gifford MA, Buss WC, Douds RJ (1937) Data on Coccidioides fungus infection, Kern County, 1901–1936. Kern County Health Department, California, Annual Report 39–54Google Scholar
  85. Gomez AM, Bullock WE, Taylor CL, Deepe GS Jr (1988) Role of L3T4+ T cells in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun 56:229–235Google Scholar
  86. Gomez AM, Rhodes JC, Deepe GS Jr (1991a) Antigenicity and immunogenicity of an extract from the cell wall and cell membrane of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells. Infect Immun 59:330–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gomez FJ, Gomez AM, Deepe GS Jr (1991b) Protection efficacy of a 62 kilodalton antigen, HIS-62, from the cell wall and cell membrane of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells. Infect Immun 59:4459–4464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gordon MA, Vedder DK (1966) Serologic tests in diagnosis and prognosis of cryptococcosis. J Am Med Assoc 197:961–967Google Scholar
  89. Granger DL, Perfect JR, Durack DT (1986) Macrophage-mediated fungistasis in vitro: requirements for intracellular and extracellular cytotoxicity. J Immunol 136: 672–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Graybill JR, Alford RH (1974) Cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. Cell Immunol 14:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Graybill JR, Drutz DJ (1978) Host defense in cryptococcosis in the nude mouse. Cell Immunol 40:263–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Graybill JR, Mitchell L, Drutz DJ (1979) Host defense in cryptococcosis. III. Protection of nude mice by thymus transplantation. J Infect Dis 140:546–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Green DR, Webb DR (1993) Saying the “S” word in public. Immunol Today 14:523–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Greenfield RA (1992) Host defense system interactions with Candida. J Med Vet Mycol 30:89–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Harvey RP, Stevens DA (1981) In vitro assays of cellular immunity in progressive coccidioidomycosis. Evaluation of suppression with parasitic-phase antigens. Am Rev Respir Dis 23:665–669Google Scholar
  96. Henderson HM, Deepe GS Jr (1992) Recognition of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast-cell antigens by human lymphocytes and human T-cell clones. J Leukoc Biol 51:432–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hidore MR, Murphy JW (1986) Natural cellular resistance of beige mice against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 137:3624–3631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hidore MR, Nabavi N, Reynolds CW, Henkart PA, Murphy JW (1990) Cytoplasmic components of natural killer cells limit the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Leukoc Biol 48:15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hidore MR, Nabavi N, Sonleitner F, Murphy JW (1991) Murine natural killer cells are fungicidal to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 5:1747–1754Google Scholar
  100. Hill JO (1992) CD4+ T cells cause multinucleated giant cells to form around Cryptococcus neoformans and confine the yeast within the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract. J Exp Med 175:1685–1695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hill JO, Aguirre KM (1994) CD4+ T cell-dependent acquired state of immunity that protects the brain against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 152:2344–2350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hill JO, Harmsen AG (1991) Intrapulmonary growth the dissemination of an avirulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice depleted of CD44- or CD8+ T-cells. J Exp Med 173:775–758Google Scholar
  103. Hoy JF, Murphy JW, Miller GPG (1989) T cell response to soluble cryptococcal antigens after recovery from cry-ptococcal infection. J Infect Dis 159:116–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Huffnagle GB, Yates JL, Lipscomb MF (1991a) Immunity to a pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med 173:793–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Huffnagle GB, Yates JL, Lipscomb MF (1991b) T cell-mediated immunity in the lung: a Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection model using SCID and athymic nude mice. Infect Immun 59:1423–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Huffnagle GB, Lipscomb MF, Lovchik JA, Hoag KA, Street NE (1994) The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the protective inflammatory response to a pulmonary cryptococcal infection. J Leukoc Biol 55:35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Imam N, Carpenter CCJ, Mayer KH, Fisher A, Stein M, Danforth SB (1990) Hierarchical pattern of mucosal Candida infections in HIV-seropositive women. Am J Med 89:142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Jenkins MK, Taylor PS, Norton SD, Urdahl KB (1991) CD28 delivers a costimulatory signal involved in antigen-specific IL-2 production in human T cells. J Immunol 147:2461–2466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Jensen J, Warner T, Balish E (1993) Resistance of SCID mice to Candida albicans administered intravenously or colonizing the gut: role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. J Infect Dis 167:912–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Johnson JG, Jenkins MK (1994) Monocytes provide a novel costimulatory signal to T cells that is not mediated by the CD28/B7 interaction. J Immunol 152:429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Johnson WM (1982) Racial factors in coccidioidomycosis: mortality experience in Arizona. Ariz Med 39:18–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. June CH, Ledbetter JA, Gillespie MM, Lindsten T, Thompson CB (1987) T-cell proliferation involving the CD28 pathway is associated with cyclosporine-resistant interleukin-2 gene expression. Mol Cell Biol 7:4472–4481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kagaya K, Shinoda T, Fukazawa Y (1981) Murine defense mechanisms against Candida albicans infection. I. Collaboration of cell-mediated and humoral immunities in protection against systemic C. albicans infection. Microbiol Immunol 25:647–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Khakpour FR, Murphy JW (1987) Characterization of a third-order suppressor T cell (Ts3) induced by crypto-coccal antigen(s). Infect Immun 55:1657–1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kirkland TN, Fierer J (1983) Inbred mouse strains differ in resistance to lethal Coccidioides immitis infection. Infect Immun 40:912–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kirkland TN, Fierer J (1985) Genetic control of resistance to Coccidioides immitis: a single gene that is expressed in the spleen cells determines resistance. J Immunol 135:548–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kirkpatrick CH (1989) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 8:448–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kirkpatrick CH, Smith TK (1974) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: immunologic and antibiotic therapy. Ann Intern Med 80:310–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Klein RS, Harris CA, Small CB, Moll B, Lesser M, Friedland GH (1984) Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 311:354–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kong YM, Levine HB (1967) Experimentally induced immunity in the mycoses. Bacteriol Rev 31:35–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kong YM, Levine HT, Smith CE (1963) Immunogenic properties of non-disrupted and disrupted spherules of Coccidioides immitis in mice. Sabouraudia 2:131–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lane TE, Wu-Hsieh BA, Howard DH (1991) Iron limitation and gamma interferon-mediated antihistoplasmal state of murine macrophages. Infect Immun 59: 2274–2278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lane TE, Wu-Hsieh BA, Howard DH (1993) Gamma interferon cooperates with lipopolysaccharide to activate mouse splenic macrophages to an antihistoplasmal state. Infect Immun 61:1468–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lecara G, Cox RA, Simpson RB (1983) Coccidioides immitis vaccine: potential of an alkali-soluble, water-soluble cell wall antigen. Infect Immun 39:473–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Levine HB, Cobb JM, Smith CE (1960) Immunity to coccidioidomycosis induced in mice by purified spherule, arthrospore, and mycelial vaccines. Trans NY Acad Sci 22:436–449Google Scholar
  126. Levine HB, Cobb JM, Smith CE (1961) Immunogenicity of spherule-endospore vaccine of Coccidioides immitis in mice. J Immunol 87:218–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Levine HB, Gonzalez-Ochoa A, Ten-Eyck DR (1973) Dermal sensitivity to Coccidioides immitis. A comparison of responses elicited in man by spherulin and coccidi-oidin. Am Rev Respir Dis 107:379–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Levitz SM (1991a) Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 59:3393–3397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Levitz SM (1991b) The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Rev Infect Dis 13:1163–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Levitz SM, Dupont MP (1993) Phenotypic and functional characterization of human lymphocytes activated by interleukin-2 to directly inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. J Clin Invest 91:1490–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Levitz SM, Farrell TP (1990) Growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by cultured human monocytes: role of the capsule, opsonins, the culture surface, and cytokines. Infect immun 58:1201–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Levitz SM, Farrell TP, Maziarz RT (1991) Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in culture. J Infect Dis 163:1108–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Levitz SM, Dupont MP, Smail EH (1994a) Direct activity of human T lymphocytes and natural killer cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 62:194–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H, Reardon CC, Golenbock DT (1994b) Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 62:1975–1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lim TS, Murphy JW (1980) Transfer of immunity to cryptococcosis by T-enriched splenic lymphocytes from Cryptococcus neoformans-sensitized mice. Infect Immun 30:5–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lim TS, Murphy JW, Cauley LK (1980) Host-etiological agent interactions in intranasally and intraperitoneally induced cryptococcosis in mice. Infect Immun 29: 633–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Linsley PS, Brady W, Urnes M, Grosmaire LS, Damle NK, Ledbetter JA (1991) CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7. J Exp Med 174: 561–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mahanty S, Greenfield RA, Joyce WA, Kincade PW (1988) Inoculation candidiasis in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. Infect Immun 56:3162–3166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Marmor MF, Barnett EV (1968) Cutaneous anergy without systemic disease. A syndrome associated with mucocutaneous fungal infection. Am J Med 44:979–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Masur H, Ognibene FP, Yarchoan R, Shelhamer JH, Baird BF, Travis W, Suffredini AF, Deyton L, Kovacs JA, Falloon J, Davey R, Polis M, Metcalf J, Baseler M, Wesley R, Gill VJ, Fauci AS, Lane HC (1989) CD4 counts as predictors of opportunistic pneumonias in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med 111:223–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Meyer RD, Holmberg K (1989) Fungal infections in HIV-infected patients. In: Holmberg K, Meyer RD (eds) Diagnosis and therapy of systemic fungal infections. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Michie CA, McLean A, Alcock C, Beverley PCL (1992) Lifespan of human lymphocyte subsets defined by CD45 isoforms. Nature 360:264–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Miller GPG, Lewis DE (1987) In vitro effect of cyclo-sporine on interleukin-2 receptor expression stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. J Infect Dis 155:799–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Miller GPG, Puck J (1984) In vitro human lymphocyte responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Evidence for primary and secondary responses in normal and infected subjects. J Immunol 133:166–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Modlin RL, Segal GP, Hofmann FM, Walley MS, Johnson RH, Taylor CR, Res TH (1985) In situ localization of T lymphocytes in disseminated coccidioidomycosis. J Infect Dis 151:314–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Mody CH, Lipscomb MF, Street NE, Toews GB (1990) Depletion of CD4+ (L3T4+) lymphocytes in vivo impairs murine host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 144:1472–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mody CH, Tyler CL, Sitrin RG, Jackson C, Toews GB (1991) Interferon-gamma activates rat alveolar macrophages for anticryptococcal activity. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol 5:19–26Google Scholar
  148. Mody CH, Chen G, Jackson C, Curtis JL, Toews GB (1993) Depletion of murine CD8+ T cells in vivo decreases pulmonary clearance of a moderately virulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Lab Clin Med 121:765–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mody CH, Paine R III, Jackson C, Chen GH, Toews GB (1994) CD8 cells play a critical role in delayed type hypersensitivity to intact Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 152:3970–3979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Monoz AI, Limbert D (1977) Skin reactivity to Candida and streptokinase-streptodornase antigens in normal pediatric subjects: influence of age and acute illness. J Pediatr 91:565–568Google Scholar
  151. Morgan MA, Blackstock R, Bulmer GS, Hall NK (1983) Modification of macrophage phagocytosis in murine cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 40:493–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Moser SA, Lyon FL, Domer JE, Williams JE (1982) Immunization of mice by intracutaneous inoculation with viable virulent Cryptococcus neoformans: immunological and histopathological parameters. Infect Immun 35:685–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mosley RL, Murphy JW, Cox RA (1986) Immunoadsorption of Cryptococcus-specific suppressor T-cell factors. Infect Immun 51:844–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Mosmann TR, Coffman RL (1989a) Heterogeneity of cytokine secretion patterns and functions of helper T cells. Adv Immunol 46:111–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Mosmann TR, Coffman RL (1989b) TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annu Rev Immunol 7:145–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Muchmore HG, Felton FG, Salvin SB, Rhoades ER (1969) Delayed hypersensitivity to cryptococcin in man. Sabouraudia 6:285–288Google Scholar
  157. Mueller DL, Jenkins M, Schwartz RH (1989) Clonal expansion versus functional clonal inactivation: a costimulatory signalling pathway determines the outcome of T cell antigen receptor occupancy. Annu Rev Immunol 7:445–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Murphy JW (1985) Effects of first-order Cryptococcus-specific T-suppressor cells on induction of cells responsible for delayed-type hypersensitivity. Infect Immun 48:439–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Murphy JW (1988) Influence of cryptococcal antigens on cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Rev Infect Dis 10:5432–5435Google Scholar
  160. Murphy JW (1989a) Cryptococcosis. In: Cox RA (ed) Immunology of the fungal diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 93–138Google Scholar
  161. Murphy JW (1989b) Immunoregulation in cryptococcosis. In: Kurstak E (ed) Immunology of fungal diseases. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 319–345Google Scholar
  162. Murphy JW (1989c) Natural host resistance mechanisms against systemic mycotic agents. In: Reynolds CW, Wiltrout RH (eds) Functions of the natural immune system. Plenum, New York, pp 149–184Google Scholar
  163. Murphy JW (1993) Cytokine profiles associated with induction of the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. Infect Immun 61:4750–4759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Murphy JW, Cox RA (1988) Induction of antigen-specific suppression by circulating Cryptococcus neoformans antigen. Clin Exp Immunol 73:174–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Murphy JW, McDaniel DO (1982) In vitro reactivity of natural killer (NK) cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 128:1577–1583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Murphy JW, Moorhead JW (1982) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. I. Induction of specific afferent T suppressor cells by cryptococcal antigen. J Immunol 128:276–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Murphy JW, Mosley RL (1985) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. III. Characterization of second-order T suppressor cells (Ts2). J Immunol 134:577–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Murphy JW, Pahlavan N (1979) Cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen for detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity in cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 25:284–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Murphy JW, Gregory JA, Larsh HW (1974) Skin testing of guinea pigs and footpad testing of mice with a new antigen for detecting delayed hypersensitivity to Cryptococcus neoformans Infect Immun 9:404–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Murphy JW, Mosley RL, Moorhead JW (1983) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. II. Characterization of first-order T suppressor cells (Tsl) and induction of second-order suppressor cell. J Immunol 130:2876–2881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Murphy JW, Mosley RL, Cherniak R, Reyes GH, Kozel TR, Reiss E (1988) Serological, electrophoretic, and biological properties of Cryptococcus neoformans antigens. Infect Immun 56:424–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Murphy JW, Hidore MR, Wong SC (1993) Direct interactions of human lymphocytes with the yeast-like organism, Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Invest 91: 1553–1566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Murphy JW, Wu-Hsieh B, Singer-Vermes LM, Ferrante A, Moser S, Russo M, Vaz CAC, Burger E, Calich VLG, Kowanko IC, Rathjen DA, Martin AJ, Buey RP, Chen Q (1994) Cytokines in the host response to mycotic agents. J Med Vet Mycol 32:S1 123–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Narayanan R, Joyce WA, Greenfield RA (1991) Gastrointestinal candidiasis in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. Infect Immun 59:2116–2119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Nelson RD, Herron MJ, McCormack RT, Gehrz GC (1984) Two mechanisms of inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation by soluble yeast mannan polysaccharide. Infect Immun 43:1041–1046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Nelson RD, Shibata N, Podzorski RP, Herron MJ (1991) Candida mannan: chemistry, suppression of cell-mediated immunity, and possible mechanisms of action. Clin Microbiol Rev 4:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Newman SL, Gootee L (1992) Colony-stimulating factors activate human macrophages to inhibit intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts. Infect Immun 60:4593–4597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Newman SL, Bucher C, Rhodes JC, Bullock WE (1990) Phagocytosis of Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts and microconidia by human cultured macrophages and alveolar macrophages. Cellular cytoskeleton requirement for attachment and ingestion. J Clin Invest 85: 223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nickerson DA, Havens RA, Bullock WE (1981) Immuno-regulation in disseminated histoplasmosis. Characterization of splenic suppressor cells. Cell Immunol 60:287–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nishimura K, Miyaji M (1979) Histopathological studies on experimental cryptococcosis in nude mice. Myco-pathology 68:145–153Google Scholar
  181. Nykjaer A, Moller B, Todd II RF, Christensen T, Andreasen PA, Gliemann J, Petersen CM (1994) Urokinase receptor an activation antigen in human T lymphocytes. J Immunol 152:505–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Odds FC (1979) Candida and candidosis. Leicester University Press, LeicesterGoogle Scholar
  183. Opelz G, Scheer MI (1975) Cutaneous sensitivity and in vitro responsiveness of lymphocytes in patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis. J Infect Dis 132: 250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae COC, Mukaida N, Matsushima K (1991) Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene “intercrine” cytokine family. Annu Rev Immunol 9:617–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Pappagianis D (1980) Epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis. In: Stevens DA (ed) Coccidioidomycosis. Plenum Press, New York, pp 63–85Google Scholar
  186. Pappagianis D, Hector R, Levine HB, Collins MS (1979) Immunization of mice against coccidioidomycosis with a subcellular vaccine. Infect Immun 25:440–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Paterson PY, Semo R, Blumenschein G, Swelstad J (1971) Mucocutaneous candidiasis, anergy and a plasma inhibitor of cellular immunity: reversal after amphotericin B therapy. Clin Exp Immunol 9:595–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Pereira HA, Shafer WM, Pohl J, Martin LE, Spitznagel JK (1990) CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity. J Clin Invest 85:1468–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Perfect JR, Granger DL, Durack DT (1987) Effects of antifungal agents and gamma interferon on macrophage cytotoxicity for fungi and tumor cells. J Infect Dis 156:316–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Petkus AF, Baum LL (1987) Natural killer cell inhibition of young spherules and endospores of Coccidioides immitis. J Immunol 139:3107–3111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Podzorski RP, Nelson RD (1989) Pathogenesis of candidiasis: immunosuppression by cell wall mannan catabolites. Arch Surg 124:1290–1294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Podzorski RP, Gray GR, Nelson RD (1990) Different effects of native Candida albicans mannan and mannanderived oligosaccharides on antigen-stimulated lymphoproliferation in vitro. J Immunol 144:707–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Pope LM, Cole GT, Guentzel MN, Berry LJ (1979) Systemic and gastrointestinal candidiasis of infant mice after intragastric challenge. Infect Immun 25:702–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Postlethwaite AE, Jackson BK, Beachy EH, Kang AH (1982) Formation of multinucleated giant cells from human monocyte precursors. Mediation by a soluble protein from antigen- and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. J Exp Med 155:168–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Puccetti P, Mencacci A, Cenci E, Spaccapelo R, Mosci P, Enssle K, Romani L, Bistoni F (1994) Cure of murine candidiasis by recombinant soluble interleukin-4 receptor. J Infect Dis 169:1325–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Qian Q, Jutila MA, Rooijen NV, Cutler JE (1994) Elimination of mouse splenic macrophages correlates with increased susceptibility to experimental disseminated candidiasis. J Immunol 152:5000–5008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Robinson BE, Hall NK, Bulmer GS, Blackstock R (1982) Suppression of responses to cryptococcal antigen in murine cryptococcosis. Mycopathologia 80:157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Romani L, Mocci S, Bietta C, Lanfaloni L, Pucetti P, Bistoni F (1991) Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion patterns in murine candidiasis: association of Thl responses with acquired resistance. Infect Immun 59:4647–4654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Romani L, Mencacci A, Cenci E, Mosci P, Vitellozzi G, Grohmann U, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1992a) Course of primary candidiasis in T cell-depleted mice infected with attenuated variant cells. J Infect Dis 166:1384–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Romani L, Mencacci A, Grohmann U, Mocci S, Mosci P, Puccetti P (1992b) Neutralizing antibody to interleukin 4 induces systemic protection and T helper type 1-associated immunity in murine candidiasis. J Exp Med 176:19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Romani L, Mencacci A, Cenci E, Spaccapelo R, Mosci P, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1993a) CD4+ subset expression in murine candidiasis. The responses correlate directly with genetically determined susceptibility or vaccine-induced resistance. J Immunol 150:925–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Romani L, Mencacci A, Cenci E, Spaccapelo R, Schiaffella E, Tonnetti L, Puccetti P, Bistoni F (1993b) Natural killer cells do not play a dominant role in CD4+ subset differentiation in Candida albicans-infected mice. Infect Immun 61:3769–3774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Romani L, Puccetti P, Mencacci A, Cenci ES R, Tonnetti L, Grohmann U, Bistoni F (1994) Neutralization of ILIO up-regulates nitric oxide production and protects susceptible mice from challenge with Candida albicans. J Immunol 152:3514–3521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Salkowski C, Balish E (1990) Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans in congenitaly immunodeficient beige athymic mice. Infect Immun 58:3300–3306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Salkowski C, Balish E (1991) A monoclonal antibody to gamma interferon blocks augmentation of natural killer cell activity induced during systemic cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 59:486–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Salvin SB, Smith RF (1961) An antigen for detection of hypersensitivity to Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 108:498–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Samonis G, Anaissie EJ, Rosenbaum B, Bodey GP (1990) A model of sustained gastrointestinal colonization of Candida albicans in healthy adult mice. Infect Immun 58:1514–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Scheer M, Opelz G, Terasaki P, Hewett W (1973) The association of disseminated coccidioidomycosis and histocompatibility type. 13th Interscience Conf on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, Abstr 157Google Scholar
  209. Schimpff SC, Bennett JE (1975) Abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity in patients with Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55:430–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Shannon DC, Johnson G, Rosen FS, Austen KF (1966) Cellular reactivity to Candida albicans antigen. New Engl J Med 275:690–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Sher A, Coffman RL (1992) Regulation of immunity to parasites by T cells and T cell-derived cytokines. Annu Rev Immunol 10:385–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Sigal NH, Dumonat FJ (1992) Cyclosporin A, FK-506, and rapamycin: pharmacologic probes of lymphocyte signal transduction. Annu Rev Immunol 10:519–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Slagle DC, Cox RA, Kuruganti U (1989) Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by spherules of Coccidioides immitis. Infect Immun 57:1916–1921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Smith CE, Whiting EG, Baker EE, Rosenberger HG, Beard RR, Saito MT (1948) The use of coccidioidin. Am Rev Tuberc 57:330–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Smith JG, Magee DM, Williams DM, Graybill JR (1990) Tumor necrosis factor-α plays a role in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis 162: 1349–1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Smith PD, Lamerson CL, Banks SM, Saini SS, Wahl LM, Calderone RA, Wahl SM (1990) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments human monocyte fungicidal activity of Candida albicans. J Infect Dis 161:999–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Spencer PM, Jackson GG (1989) Fungal and mycobacterial infections in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Antimicrob Chemother 23(Suppl A): 107–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Stobo JD, Paul S, Van Scoy RE, Hermans PE (1976) Suppressor thymus-derived lymphocytes in fungal infections. J Clin Invest 57:319–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Tavitian A, Raufman JP, Rosenthal LE (1986) Oral candidiasis as a marker for esophageal candidiasis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 104:354–358Google Scholar
  220. Trinchieri G (1989) Biology of natural killer cells. Adv Immunol 47:187–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Trinchieri G (1993) Interleukin-12 and its role in the generation of TH1 cells. Immunol Today 14:335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Valdimarsson H, Higgs JM, Wells RS, Yamamura M, Hobbs JR, Holt PJL (1973) Immune abnormalities associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Cell Immunol 6:348–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vecchiarelli A, Cenci E, Marconi P, Rossi R, Riccardi C, Bistoni F (1989a) Immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporin A on resistance to systemic infection with Candida albicans. J Med Microbiol 30:183–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Vecchiarelli A, Cenci E, Puliti M, Blasi E, Puccetti P, Cassone A, Bistoni F (1989b) Protective immunity induced by low-virulence Candida albicans: cytokine production in the development of the anti-infectious state. Cell Immunol 124:334–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Wang M, Friedman H, Djeu JY (1989) Enhancement of human monocyte function against Candida albicans by the colony-stimulating factors (CSF): IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and macrophage-CSF. J Immunol 143:671–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Williams DM, Graybill JR, Drutz DJ (1981) Adoptive transfer of immunity to Histoplasma capsulatum in athymic nude mice. Sabouraudia 19:39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Williams PL, Sable DL, Sorgen SP, Pappagianis D, Levine HB, Brodine SK, Brown BW, Grumet FC, Stevens DA (1984) Immunologic responsiveness and safety associated with the Coccidioides immitis spherule vaccine in volunteers of white, black, and Filipino ancestry. Am J Epidemiol 119:591–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Wilson BD, Sohnle PG (1986) Participation of neutrophils and delayed hypersensitivity in the clearance of experimental cutaneous candidiasis in mice. Am J Pathol 123:241–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Wu-Hsieh B (1989) Relative susceptibilities of inbred mouse strains C57BL/6 and A/J to infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun 57:3788–3792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Wu-Hsieh B, Howard DH (1993) Histoplasmosis. In: Murphy JW, Friedman H, Bendinelli M (eds) Fungal infections and immune responses. Plenum Press, New York, pp 213–250Google Scholar
  231. Wu-Hsieh B, Lee GL, Franco M, Hofman FM (1992) Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis. Infect Immun 60:4230–4238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Wu-Hsieh BA, Howard DH (1984) Inhibition of growth of Histoplasma capsulatum by lymphokine-stimulated macrophages. J Immunol 132:2593–2597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wu-Hsieh BA, Howard DH (1987) Inhibition of the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum by recombinant murine gamma interferon. Infect Immun 55: 1014–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wu-Hsieh BA, Howard DH (1992) Intracellular growth inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum induced in murine macrophages by recombinant gamma interferon is not due to limitation of the supply of methionine or cysteine to the fungus. Infect Immun 60:698–700PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juneann W. Murphy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations