Observations in the solar-terrestrial environment are made from the ground, such as magnetic field measurements, in situ from rockets and satellites, and by means of remote sensing, for instance radio sounding of the ionosphere. Measured parameters cover fields and their fluctuations, plasmas, energetic particles, and electromagnetic radiation. This chapter gives a brief overview of the basic principles of field, plasma, and particle measurements. It does not show examples of instruments because each instrument is designed for a very special purpose and therefore has unique specifications. Collected papers on measurement techniques in space plasmas can be found in [407,408].
KeywordsEnergetic Particle Residual Energy Space Plasma Langmuir Probe Magnetic Field Measurement
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