Advertisement

Core Levels and Final States

  • Stefan Hüfner
Chapter
  • 1.9k Downloads
Part of the Advanced Texts in Physics book series (ADTP)

Abstract

Photoemission produces a final state that is lacking one electron with respect to the initial state. Therefore, PES always measures final-state energies which can be related to initial-state energies only after some theoretical considerations. The problem is illustrated in Fig. 2.1. On the left-hand side are shown the one-electron orbital energies —ε in the ground state of the neon atom. On the right-hand side are the final state configurations, as measured by PES for the same atom.1 These are, of course, hole-state energies. The relation between these two sets of energy levels is far from trivial. However, one should add that the orbital energies (left side) cannot be measured. In general, one can only measure the energy levels given on the right-hand side, which are (many-body) hole-state energies [2.1].

Keywords

Binding Energy Core Level Cohesive Energy Relaxation Energy Core Polarization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 2.1
    A good description of the breakdown of the one-electron picture in PES has been given in G. Wendin: Structure and Bonding 45 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1981 )Google Scholar
  2. 2.2
    K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, R. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S.-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, B. Lindberg: In Nova Acta Regiae Sci. Soc., Upsaliensis, Ser IV, 20 (1967) K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, G. Johansson, J. Hedman, P.F. Heden, K. Hamrin, U. Gelius, T. Bergmark, L.O. Werme, R. Manne, Y. Baer: ESCA-Applied to Free Molecules ( North-Holland, Amsterdam 1969 )Google Scholar
  3. 2.3
    W.C. Price: In Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques and Applications I, ed. by C.R. Brundle, A.D. Baker ( Academic, New York 1977 )Google Scholar
  4. 2.4
    W.L. Jolly: In Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques and Applications I, ed. by C.R. Brundle, A.D. Baker ( Academic, New York 1977 )Google Scholar
  5. 2.5
    H.W.B. Skinner: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A135, 84 (1932)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 2.
    C.E. Moore: Ionization potentials and ionization limits derived from the analysis of optical spectra. Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Sev., NBS, 34 (1970); and Atomic energy levels. Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Sev., NBS 35/I (1971) and US Nat. Bur. Stand. Circ. No.467 (1958) Vols.I-IIIGoogle Scholar
  7. 2.7
    E.M. Baroody: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1528 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 2.8
    L. Pauling: The Nature of the Chemical Bond (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1950 )Google Scholar
  9. 2.9
    P. Finn, R.K. Pearson, J.M. Hollander, W.L. Jolly: Inorg. Chem. 10, 378 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 2.10
    L. Hedin, A. Johansson: J. Phys. B2, 1336 (1969)Google Scholar
  11. 2.11
    W.L. Jolly: Discuss. Faraday Soc. 54, 13 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 2.12
    D.W. Davis, D.A. Shirley: Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 185 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 2.13
    W.L. Jolly, W.B. Perry: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 5442 (1973) W.L. Jolly, W.B. Perry: Inorg. Chem. 13, 2686 (1974)Google Scholar
  14. 2.14
    J.C. Slater: Quantum Theory of Molecules and Solids, Vol.IV ( McGraw Hill, New York 1974 )Google Scholar
  15. 2.15
    M. Born: Verh. dt. phys. Ges. 21, 13 and 679 (1919) F. Haber: Verh. dt. phys. Ges. 21, 750 (1919)Google Scholar
  16. 2.16
    C.S. Fadley, S.B.M. Hagstroem, J.M. Hollander, M.P. Klein, D.A. Shirley: J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3779 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 2.17
    N.F. Mott, R.W. Gurney: Electronic Processes in Ionic Crystals ( Dover, New York 1964 ) p. 56Google Scholar
  18. 2.18
    P.H. Citrin, T.D. Thomas: J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4446 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 2.19
    G.K. Wertheim, D.N.E. Buchanan, J.E. Rowe, P.H. Citrin: Surf. Sci. Lett. 319, L41 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 2.
    M. Cardona, L. Ley: In Photoemission in Solids I ed. by M. Cardona, L. Ley,Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1978) Chap.1Google Scholar
  21. 2.21
    R.C. Martin, D.A. Shirley: In Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques and Applications I, ed. by C.R. Brundle, A.D. Baker ( Academic, New York 1977 )Google Scholar
  22. 2.22
    C.S. Fadley: In Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques and Applications II, ed. by C.R. Brundle, A.D. Baker ( Academic, New York 1978 )Google Scholar
  23. 2.23
    T. Koopmans: Physica 1, 104 (1933)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 2.24
    J.C. Slater, J.B. Mann, T.M. Wilson, J.H. Wood: Phys. Rev. 184, 672 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 2.25
    U. Gelius: J. Electron Spectrosc. 5, 985 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 2.26
    D.A. Shirley: Chem. Phys. Lett. 16, 220 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 2.27
    B. Johansson: J. Phys. F 4, L169 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 2.28
    B. Johansson, N. Mârtensson: Phys. Rev. B 21, 4427 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 2.29
    B. Johansson: Phys. Rev. B 20, 1315 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 2.30
    P. Steiner, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 37, 79 1981); Acta Met. 29, 1885 (1981)Google Scholar
  31. 2.31
    P. Steiner, S. Hüfner, N. Mârtensson, B. Johansson: Solid State Commun. 37, 73 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 2.32
    P. Steiner, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 37, 279 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 2.33
    C.P. Flynn: J. Phys. F 10, L 315 (1980)Google Scholar
  34. 2.34
    W.C. Martin, R. Zalubas, L. Hagan: Atomic energy levels — The rare earth elements, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Ref. Data Ser. 60 U.S.GPO, Washington, DC (1978)Google Scholar
  35. 2.35
    U.L. Van der Sluis, L.J. Nugent: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 687 (1974)Google Scholar
  36. 2.36
    J.F. Herbst, D.N. Lowry, R.E. Watson: Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972)Google Scholar
  37. 2.37
    J.F. Herbst, R.E. Watson, J.W. Wilkins: Phys. Rev. B 13, 1439 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 2.38
    J.F. Herbst, R.E. Watson, J.W. Wilkins: Phys. Rev. B 17, 3089 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 2.39
    J.K. Lang, Y. Baer, P.A. Cox: J. Phys. Metal. Phys. 11, 121 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 2.40
    S. Hüfner, P. Steiner: Valence Instabilities, ed. by P. Wachter, H. Boppart ( North-Holland, Amsterdam 1982 ) p. 263Google Scholar
  41. 2.41
    M.R. Norman, D.D. Koelling, A.J. Freeman, H.J.F. Janssen, B.I. Min, T. Oguchi, Y. Ling: Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1673 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 2.42
    S. Hüfner, P. Steiner: Z. Physik B 46, 37 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 2.43
    O. Gunnarsson, K. Schönhammer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 604 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 2.44
    O. Gunnarsson, K. Schönhammer: Phys. Rev. B 28, 4315 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 2.45
    D.M. Wieliczka, C.G. Olson, D.W. Lynch: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2180 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 2.46
    G. Kalkowski, E.V. Sampathkumaran, C. Laubschat, M. Dornke, G. Kaindl:Solid State Commun. 55, 977 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 2.47
    R.D. Parks, S. Raan, M.L. Den Boer, M.L. Chang, G.P. Williams: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2176 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 2.48
    S. Hüfner: J. Phys. F 16, L31 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 2.49
    O. Gunnarsson, K. Schönhammer: In Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol.10, ed. by K.A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, S. Hüfner ( Elsevier Science, New York 1987 )Google Scholar
  50. 2.50
    J.H. van Vleck: Phys. Rev. 45, 405 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 2.51
    G.K. Wertheim, S. Hüfner, H.J. Guggenheim: Phys. Rev. B 7, 556 (1973)Google Scholar
  52. 2.52
    S. Hüfner, G.K. Wertheim: Phys. Rev. B 7, 2333 (1973)Google Scholar
  53. 2.53
    R.L. Cohen, G.K. Wertheim, A. Rosencwaig, H.J. Guggenheim: Phys. Rev. B 5, 1037 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 2.54
    D.A. Shirley: In Photoemission in Solids,ed. by M. Cardona, L.Ley, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1978) Chap.4Google Scholar
  55. 2.55
    F.R. McFeely, S.P. Kowalczyk, L. Ley. D.A. Shirley: Phys. Lett. A 49, 301 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 2.56
    B.W. Veal, A.P. Paulikas: Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1995 (1983)Google Scholar
  57. 2.57
    B.W. Veal, A.P. Paulikas: Phys. Rev. B 31, 5399 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 2.58
    D.K.G. de Boer, C. Haas, G.A. Sawatzky: Phys. Rev. B 29, 4401 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 2.59
    V. Kinsinger, I. Sander, P. Steiner, R. Zimmermann, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 73, 527 (1990)Google Scholar
  60. K. Okada, A. Kotani, B.T. Thole: J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 58, 325 (1992)Google Scholar
  61. S.J. Oh, G.H. Gweon, J.G. Park: Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2850 (1992)Google Scholar
  62. V. Kinsinger, R. Zimmermann, S. Hüfner, P. Steiner: Z. Physik B 89, 21 (1992)Google Scholar
  63. P.S. Bagus, G. Pacchioni, F. Parmigiani: Chem. Phys. Lett. 207, 569 (1993)Google Scholar
  64. K. Okada, A. Kotani, V. Kinsinger, R. Zimmermann, S. Hüfner: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 63, 2410 (1994)Google Scholar
  65. 2.60
    K. Karlsson, O. Gunnarsson, O. Jepsen: J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 4, 895 (1992); 4, 2801 (1992)Google Scholar
  66. 2.61
    J.C. Parlebas, M.A. Khan, T. Uozurni, K. Okada, A. Kotani: ISSP Report, Ser. A, No. 2902 (1994)Google Scholar
  67. 2.62
    K. Okada, A. Kotani: J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 54, 313 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 2.63
    B. Hermsmeier, C.S. Fadley, M.O. Krause, J. Jimenez-Mier, P. Gerard, S.T. Manson: Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2592 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 2.
    A.J. Freeman, B.I. Min, M.R. Norman: In Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths,ed. by K.A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, S. Hüfner (Elsevier Science, New York 1987) Vol.10.Google Scholar
  70. 2.65
    S. Hüfner: Optical Properties of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds ( Academic, New York 1978 )Google Scholar
  71. 2.66
    F. Patthey, B. Delley, W.D. Schneider, Y. Baer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1918 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 2.67
    S. Hiifner, L. Schlapbach: Z. Physik B 64, 417 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 2.68
    M. Campagna, G.K. Wertheim, Y. Baer: In Photoemission in Solids II, ed. by Ley, M. Cardona, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.27 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979 ) Chap.4 M. Campagna, G.K. Wertheim, E. Bucher: Structure and Bonding 30, 99 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1976 )Google Scholar
  74. 2.69
    J.N. Chazaviel, M. Campagna, G.K. Wertheim, P.Y. Schmidt: Solid State Commun. 19, 725 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 2.70
    P.A. Cox: Structure and Bonding 24, 59 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1975 )Google Scholar
  76. 2.71
    A. Zunger, A.J. Freeman: Phys. Rev. B 15, 2901 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 2.72
    M.R. Norman, D.D. Koelling, A.J. Freeman: Phys. Rev. B 31, 6251 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 2.73
    M.R. Norman: Phys. Rev. B 31, 6261 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 2.74
    M.R. Norman, D.D. Koelling, A.J. Freeman: Phys. Rev. B 32, 7748 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 2.75
    B.1. Min, H.J.F. Jansen, T. Oguchi, A.J. Freeman: J. Mag. Mag. Mat. 61, 139 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 2.76
    M.R. Norman, A.J. Freeman: Phys. Rev. B 33, 8896 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 2.77
    A. Fröhlisch, N. Warsdahl, J. Hasselströhm, O. Karis, D. Menzel, N. Miirtensson, A. Nielsson: Phys. Ref. Lett. 81, 1730 (1998)Google Scholar
  83. 2.78
    M. Scheffler, A.M. Bradshaw: In The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, ed. by D.A. King, D.P. Woodruff ( Elsevier, Amsterdam 1983 )Google Scholar
  84. 2.79
    S. Kowalczyk: Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. (1976)Google Scholar
  85. 2.80
    S.A. Flodstroem, C.W.B. Martinson, R.Z. Bachrach, S.B.M. Hagstroem, R.S. Bauer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 907 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 2.81
    T.C. Chiang, G. Kaindl, T. Mandel: Phys. Rev. B 33, 695 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 2.82
    G.K. Wertheim, S.B. DiCenzo, D.N.E. Buchanan: Phys. Rev. B 33, 5384 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 2.83
    S.B. DiCenzo, G.K. Wertheim: Comments Solid State Phys. 11, 203 (1985)Google Scholar
  89. 2.84
    G.K. Wertheim: Z. Phys. B 66, 53 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 2.
    Angewandte Oberfldchenanalyse,ed. by M. Grasserbauer, H.J. Dudek, M.F. Ebel (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986)Google Scholar
  91. 2.86
    P. Steiner, H. Höchst, S. Hüfner: In Photoemission in Solids II, ed. by L.Ley,M. Cardona, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol. 27 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979 )Google Scholar
  92. 2.87
    R.F. Reilman, A. Msezane, S.T. Manson: J. Electr. Spectr. 8, 389 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 2.88
    J.J. Yell, I. Lindau: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 32, 1 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 2.89
    J.H. Scofield: J. Electron Spec. 8, 129 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 2.90
    D.R. Penn: J. Electron Spec. 9, 29 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 2.91
    J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 100 (1999)Google Scholar
  97. 2.
    V.I. Nefedov in Ref. [2.91]Google Scholar
  98. 2.
    A. Jablonski, C.J. Powell in Ref. [2.91]Google Scholar
  99. 2.
    M.P. Seah in Ref. [2.91]Google Scholar
  100. 2.95
    D. Briggs, M.P. Seah (Eds.), Practical Surface Analysis (Wiley, Chichester 1990 ), Vols. I and IIGoogle Scholar
  101. 2.96
    J.N. Andersen, T. Balasubramanian, C.-O. Almbladh, L.I. Johansson, R. Nyholm: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4398 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hüfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für Physik und Elektrotechnik, Fachrichtung 7.2 — ExperimentalphysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations