Oral Antidiabetics

Volume 119 of the series Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology pp 287-304

Physicochemical Properties and Analytical Methods of Determination of Biguanides

  • E. Prugnard
  • , M. Noel

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As described by Shapiro et al. (1959), biguanides are diacid bases. They have a particularly strong primary dissociation constant and a considerably weaker second dissociation constant. The first salts of biguanides which were prepared were the sulfate (obtained by treatment of the biguanide-copper complex), the hydrochloride and the nitrate because of its insolubility. Other known salts are the toluenesulfonate, the tartrate and the pamoate. In order to obtain a better pharmacological activity some other salts have been prepared by treating biguanides with carboxylic acids. These salts were the adamantate, Clofibrate, orotate, nicotinate, isoxazole-carboxylate, pyrazole-carboxylate, trimethoxybenzoate and 4-chlorophenoxyacetate.