Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb.: Blue Pigment Production for Food Color

  • T. Ichi
  • T. Shimizu
  • K. Yoshihira
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 37)


Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. (Fig. 1), whose Japanese name is kusagi, meaning bad-smelling tree, belongs to the Verbenaceae and grows wild in fields and mountains in Japan and China. It has a stalk of more than 3 m in height and a wide egg-shaped leaf. It blossoms in August, has many white flowers with five red sepals, and the fruits assume a sky-blue pigment when they ripen in October. Formerly, the blue pigment of the fruit was used to color clothes in sky-blue and its extract was used as a herbal medicine. Clerodendrine A, B and clerodenronine A, B are contained in the leaf, and clerodron and clerodon triterpenoids are contained in the root. These substances are effective in the treatment of hypertension, rheumatism, diarrhea, etc.


Heat Stability Indigo Carmine Blue Pigment Color Tone Lithospermum Erythrorhizon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ames BN, McCann J, Yamasaki E (1975) Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat Res 31: 347–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajaj YPS (ed) (1994) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vols 26, 28. Medicinal and aromatic plants VI, VII. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Dougall DK, Weyrauch KW (1980) Growth and anthocyanin production by carrot suspension cultures grown under chemostat conditions with phosphate as the limiting nutrient. Biotechnol Bioeng 22: 337–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fujita Y, Suga C (1991) Production of shikonin derivatives by plant (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) cell culture. Fragrance J 19: 33–36Google Scholar
  5. Hadgauda RS, Mascarenhas AF (1986) A method for screening high curcumin-containing turmeric (Curcuma Tonga L.) cultivars in vitro. Plant Physiol 124: 356–359Google Scholar
  6. Irikawa H, Toyoda Y, Kumagai H, Okumura Y (1989) Isolation of four 2,3,5,6,11,11-b-hexahydro3-oxo- 1H-indolizino(8,7-b)indole-5-carboxylic acids from Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. and properties of their derivatives. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 62: 880–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iwadare S, Shizuri Y, Sasaki K, Hirata Y (1974a) Isolation and structure of trichotomine. Tetrahedron Lett 12: 1051–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iwadare S, Shizuri Y, Sasaki K, Hirata Y (1974b) Isolation and structure of trichotomine and trichotomine Gl. Tetrahedron 30: 4105–4111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iwadare S, Shizuri Y, Yamada K, Hirata Y (1974c) Synthesis of trichotomine, a blue pigment obtained from Clerodendron trichotomum. Tetrahedron Lett 13: 1177–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iwadare S, Shizuri Y, Yamada K, Hirata Y (1978) Synthesis of trichotomine, a blue pigment obtained from Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. Tetrahedron 34: 1457–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jhang JJ, Staba EJ, Kim JY (1974) American and Korean ginseng tissue cultures. Growth, chemical analysis, and plantlet production. In Vitro 9: 253–259Google Scholar
  12. Kapadia GJ, Rao RE (1977) Biomimetic synthesis of trichotomine. Tetrahedron Lett 11: 975–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koda T, Ichi T, Odake K, Furuta H, Sekiya J (1992a) Blue pigment formation by Clerodendron trichotomum callus. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56: 2020–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koda T, Ichi T, Odake K, Sekiya J (1992b) Properties of blue pigment produced by cultured plant cells of Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. as food color. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 39: 850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kohda H (1991) Production of useful pigments in cultured cells of Gardenia jasminoides forma grandiflora. Fragrance J 19: 44–47Google Scholar
  16. Linsmaier EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18: 100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mizukami H, Konoshima M, Tabata M (1978) Variation in pigment production in Lithospermum erythrorhizon callus cultures. Phytochemistry 17: 95–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mizukami H, Tomita K, Ohashi H, Hiraoka N (1988) Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle (Hibiscus subdariffa L.). Plant Cell Rep 7: 553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nishi A, Yoshida A, Mori M, Sugano N (1974) Isolation of variant carrot cell lines with altered pigmentation. Phytochemistry 13: 1653–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nishimaki T, Nozue M (1985) Isolation and culture of protoplasts from high anthocyanin-producing callus of sweet potato. Plant Cell Rep 4: 248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Palmisano G, Danieli B, Lesma G, Riva R (1985) Bis(indole) alkaloids. A nonbiomimetic approach to the blue pigment trichotomine dimethyl ester. J Org Chem 50: 3322–3325Google Scholar
  22. Rau D, Forkmann G (1986) Anthocyanin synthesis in tissue cultures of Callistephus chinensis ( China aster ). Plant Cell Rep 5: 435–438Google Scholar
  23. Sasaki K, Iwadare S, Hirata Y (1974) Structure and absolute configuration of trichotomine. Tetrahedron Lett 12: 1055–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shimizu T, Nakamura M (1993) Natural food colors (Fujii M, ed). Korin, Tokyo, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  25. Steck W, Bailey BK, Shyluk JP, Gamborg OL (1971) Coumarins and alkaloids from cell cultures of Ruta graveolens. Phytochemistry 10: 191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stoeckigt J, Zenk MH (1975) Chemical syntheses and properties of hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A derivatives. Z Naturforsch C Biosci 30C: 352–358Google Scholar
  27. Tabata M, Yamamoto H, Hiraoka N, Marumoto Y, Konoshima M (1971) Regulation of nicotine production in tobacco tissue culture by plant growth regulators. Phytochemistry 4: 723–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tamura H, Sugisawa H (1991) Production of anthocyanins from cultured cells of Muscat bailey A. Fragrance J 19: 48–53Google Scholar
  29. Taya M, Mine K, Kino-Oka M, Tone S, Ichi T (1992) Production and release of pigments by culture of transformed hairy root of red beet. J Ferment Bioeng 73: 31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. West FP, Mika S (1975) Bot Gaz 15: 71–77Google Scholar
  31. Westcott RJ, Henshaw GG (1976) Phenolic synthesis and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in suspension cultures of Acer pseudoplatanus L. Planta 1: 67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Widholm JM (1972) Anthranilate synthetase from 5-methyltryptophan-susceptible and -resistant cultured Daucus carota cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 279: 48–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yamakawa T, Kato S, Ishida K, Kodama T, Minoda Y (1983) Production of anthocyanins by Vitis cells in suspension culture. Agric Biol Chem 47: 2185–2191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yamamoto Y, Kinoshita Y, Watanabe S, Yamada Y (1989) Anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of high-producing cells of Euphorbia millii. Agric Biol Chem 53: 417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Ichi
    • 1
  • T. Shimizu
    • 1
  • K. Yoshihira
    • 2
  1. 1.San-Ei Gen F.F.I., Inc.Osaka 561Japan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Integrated Science and ArtUniversity of ToaShimonoseki, 751Japan

Personalised recommendations