Advertisement

Catha edulis (Khat): In Vitro Culture and the Production of Cathinone and Other Secondary Metabolites

  • H. M. Elhag
  • J. S. Mossa
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 37)

Abstract

Khat, Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl. (Celasteraceae), is an evergreen shrub or tall tree that may reach up to 25 m in height if not pruned (Fig. 1). Extensive pruning makes it a small shrub, as it is usually described. Its life span may extend for 40 years. The plant is indigenous to East Africa and southern Arabia, but may have originated in the Harar district of Ethiopia, according to earlier reports (Getahun and Krikorian 1973). Its habitat extends from northern Ethiopia to the mountainous regions of East Africa and Yemen, all the way to south Africa, between latitudes 18 °N and 30 °S. It is cultivated mostly on hillsides and mountain slopes at altitudes of 1500–2000 m above sea level (Nordal 1980; Krikorian 1984). Besides Ethiopia and Yemen, the khat plant is now grown in Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Madagascar. However, the use of the plant is by no means restricted to the natives of these countries, but extends to other Asian countries and immigrant communities in several Western countries (Kalix 1990).

Keywords

Callus Induction Micropropagated Plant Indole Butyric Acid Multiple Shoot Formation Micropropagated Plantlet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Meshal I, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M (1985) Cat ha edulis (Khat): use, abuse and current status of scientific knowledge. Fitoterapia 56: 131Google Scholar
  2. Baxter R, Crombie L, Simmonds D, Whiting D, Braenden O, Szendrei K (1979) Alkaloids of Catha edulis (khat). Isolation and characterization of eleven new alkaloids with sesquiterpene cores (cathedulins). J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1979: 2965–2971Google Scholar
  3. Butler LG (1989) Sorghum polyphenols. In: Cheeke PR (ed) Toxicants of plant origin, vol IV. Phenolics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 95–121Google Scholar
  4. Duke JA (1985) Handbook of medicinal herbs. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. Eddy N, Halbach H, Isbell H, Seevers M (1965) Drug dependence: its significance and characteristics. Bull WHO 32: 721–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. El-Domiaty MM, Elhag HM, El-Feraly FS, Al-Meshal IA, El-Olemy MM (1994) Studies on (—)-cathinone formation in micropropagated plants and tissue cultures of Catha edulis (Khat). Int J Pharmacog (2): 135–141Google Scholar
  7. Elhag HM (1991) In vitro propagation of Catha edulis. HortSci 26 (2): 212Google Scholar
  8. Elmi A (1983b) The chewing of khat in Somalia. J Ethnopharmacol 8: 163–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50: 151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geisshusler S, Brenneisen R (1987) The content of physcoactive phenylpropyl-and phenylpentenylkhatamines in Catha edulis Forsk. of different origin. J Ethnopharmacol 19: 269–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Getahun A, Krikorian A (1973) Chat: coffee’s rival from Harar, Ethiopia. 1. Botany, cultivation and use. Econ Bot 27: 353–377.Google Scholar
  12. Halbach H (1972) Medical aspects of the chewing of khat leaves. Bull WHO 7: 21–29Google Scholar
  13. Kalix P (1990) Pharmacological properties of the stimulant khat. Pharmacol Ther 48: 397–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krikorian A (1984) Khat and its use: a historical perspective. J Ethnopharmacol 12: 115–178 Luqman W, Danowski T (1976) The use of khat in Yemen: social and medical observations. Ann Intern Med 85: 246–249Google Scholar
  15. Morton JF (1979) Plant tannins and esophageal cancer, In: Deichmann W (ed) Toxicology and occupational medicine (Proc 10th Inter-Amer Conf on Toxicology and occupational medicine). Elsevier, North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 129–137Google Scholar
  16. Morton, JF (1989) Tannin as a carcinogen in bush-tea: tea, mate and khat. In: Hemingway RW Karchesy JJ (eds) Chemistry and significance of condensed tannins. Plenum, New York, pp 403–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nordal A (1980) Khat: pharmacognostical aspects. Bull Narc 32: 51–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nordal A, Laane MM (1978) Identification of khat. MEDD, Norsk Farm, Selsk 40: 1–18Google Scholar
  20. Petereit F, Kolodziej H, Nahrstedt A (1991) Flavan-3-OLS and proanthocyanidins from Cistus incanus. Phytochemistry 30 (3): 981–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qureshi S, Al-Meshal I, Tariq M, Ageel A, Shah A (1989) Effect of khat on spermatozoa from the different stages of spematogenic cycle in mice. Fitoterapia 60: 257–259Google Scholar
  22. Shadan P, Shellard EJ (1962) An anatomical study of Ethiopian khat (leaf of Catha edulis. Forsk ). J Pharm Pharmacol 14: 110–118Google Scholar
  23. Tariq M, Bacchus R, Moaz A, Sobki S, Rafatullah S, Al-Meshal IA (1993) Reproductive toxicity of khat (Catha edulis): a substance of abuse from eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In: Richardson M (ed) Reproductive toxicology. Weinheim, New York, pp 231–244Google Scholar
  24. United Nations Document (1975) Investigations on the phenylalkylamine fraction, MNAR/11 United Nations Document (1977) Substances isolated from khat. MNAR/7. United Nations Narcotics Laboratory, GE. 77–4507Google Scholar
  25. United Nations Narcotics Laboratory (1978) The botany and chemistry of khat. Report of an Expert group. Antanarivo, 27 Nov.-1 Dec. 1978. MNAR/3 GE. 79–10365Google Scholar
  26. World Health Organization (1964) Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs. Khat. WHO Techn Rep Ser 273: 10Google Scholar
  27. World Health Organization (1980) W.H.O. Advisory Group. Review of the pharmacology of khat. Bull Narc 32: 89–93Google Scholar
  28. World Health Organization W.H.O. (1985) Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs. Khat. WHO Techn Rep Ser 729: 8–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. M. Elhag
  • J. S. Mossa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacognosy, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations