Fermions and Bosons

  • Philippe A. Martin
  • François Rothen
Part of the Texts and Monographs in Physics book series (TMP)


Photons in a black-body cavity, electrons in a solid, nucleons in a nucleus, neutrons in a neutron star, and helium atoms in a superfluid are examples of systems of identical particles for which the methods of many-body problems may be applied. To define the concept of identical particles more precisely, it is useful to remark that a particle is characterized by two distinct types of properties. The first, called intrinsic, are those which do not depend on the dynamical state of the particle, such as the rest mass, the charge or the total spin. The extrinsic properties are those which depend on the state of the particle or on its preparation: the position and velocity, spin orientation and other internal parameters. The following definition will be adopted here: two particles are considered identical if they possess the same intrinsic properties.


Neutron Star Occupation Number White Dwarf Helium Atom Identical Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A. Messiah, Quantum mechanics, vol. II, chap. 14, North-Holland, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloe, Quantum mechanics, vol. II, chap. 14. Wiley, 1997.Google Scholar
  3. E. Lieb, The stability of matter, Rev. Mod. Phys., 48, 553, 1976.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifchitz, Statistical physics, chap. 5 and 11, Perga-mon Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. J. M. Levy-Leblond, F. BALIBAR, Quantique, chap. 7, Inter Editions, 1984.Google Scholar
  6. F. A. Berezin, The method of second quantization, Academic Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  7. G. Baym, Lectures on quantum mechanics, chap. 19, Benjamin, 1969.Google Scholar
  8. E. Merzbacher, Quantum mechanics, chap. 20, Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  9. J. Avery, Creation and annihilation operators, McGraw-Hill, 1976.Google Scholar
  10. D. Pines, P. Nozières, The theory of quantum liquids, Benjamin, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. S. Raimes, Many-electron theory, North-Holland, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. M. H. March, M. Parrinello, Collective effects in solids and liquids, chap. 2, Hilger, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe A. Martin
    • 1
  • François Rothen
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Theoretical PhysicsSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute of Complex Matter PhysicsSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations