Advertisement

Klinik der Prämenopause, der Postmenopause und des Seniums

  • Freimut A. Leidenberger
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Das Kap. 8 hat sich mit den Auswirkungen des Alterns der Frau auf deren Fortpflanzungsfunktionen und ihr Endokrinium befaßt, u. a. mit der Entstehungsgeschichte klimakterischer Symptome, den Auswirkungen des Östrogenmangels in der Postmenopause auf Funktion und Erscheinungsbild der Erfolgsorgane der Östrogene, sowie mit den Funktionsänderungen endokriner Organe im Alter.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Bain C, Willett W, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Belanger C, Speizer FE (1981) Use of postmenopausal hormones and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 64: 42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Breckwoldt M, Neulen J, Prömpeler HJ, Wieacker P (1989) Zur Wirkung von Sexualsteroiden auf das Lipoproteinprofil. In: Lauritzen C (Hrsg) MenoPause Hormonsubstitution heute 2. Edition Infomed, München S 29Google Scholar
  3. Brincat M, Moniz CF, Kabalan S et al. (1987a) Decline in skin collagen content and metacarpal index after the menopause and its prevention with sex hormone replacement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 94: 126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brincat M, Versi E, Moniz CF et al. (1987b). Skin collagen changes in postmenopausal women receiving different regimens of estrogen therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 70: 123Google Scholar
  5. Bullock JL, Massey FM, Gambrell RD (1975) Use of medroxyprogesterone acetate to prevent menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 46: 165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burch JC, Byrd BF, Vaughn WK (1976) Results of estrogen treatment in one thousand hysterectomized women for 14318 years. In: Van Keep PA, Greenblatt RB, Albeaux-Fer-net M (eds) Consensus on menopause research. MD University Park Press, Baltimore 164Google Scholar
  7. Bush TL, Cowan LD, Barrett-Connor E (1983) Estrogen use and all cause mortality. JAMA 249: 903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bush TL, Cowan LD, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui MH, Karon JM, Wallace RB, Tyroler HA, Rifkind BM (1983) Estrogen use and all cause mortality. Preliminary results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow up Study. J Am Med Ass 249: 903Google Scholar
  9. Bush TL, Barrett-Connor E, Cowan LD, Criqui MH, Wallace RB, Suchindran CM, Tyroler HA, Rifkind BM (1987) Cardiovascular mortality and noncontraceptive use of estrogen in women: results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow up Study. Circulation 75: 1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buttermann G (1989) Änderungen der Knochendichte in der frühen Postmenopause mit und ohne Östrogen-bzw. Östrogen/Gestagen-Substitution. In: Lauritzen C (Hrsg) MenoPause: Hormonsubstitution heute 2. Edition Informed München, S 115Google Scholar
  11. Casper RF, Yen SSC (1985) Neuroendocrinology of menopausal flushes: an hypothesis of flush mechanism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 22: 293Google Scholar
  12. Casper RF, Alapin-Rubillovitz S (1985) Progestins increase endogenous opioid peptide activity in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 60: 34Google Scholar
  13. Chetkowski RJ, Meldrum DR, Steingold KA et al. (1986) Biologic effects of transdermal estradiol. N Engl J Med 314: 1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chetkowski RJ, Meldrum DR, Steingold KA et al. (1988) Biologische Wirkungen von transdermalem Estradiol. MMW 130[Suppl 1]: 15Google Scholar
  15. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH (1987) Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. New Engl J Med 316: 1105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coope J, Williams S, Patterson JS (1978) A study of the effectiveness of propranolol in menopausal hot flushes. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85: 472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cutler WB, Garcia CR (1984) The menopausal transition and beyond. In: Cutler WB, Garcia CR (eds) The medical management of menopause and premenopause. Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 3Google Scholar
  18. Dawood MY, Khan-Dawood FS, Ramos J (1986) The effect of estrogen-progestin treatment on opioid control of gonadotropin and prolactin secretion in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155: 1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie (1988) Östrogen/ Gestagen-Substitution während und nach den Wechseljahren. Dtsch Ärztebl 25/26: 1322Google Scholar
  20. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Senologie (1989). Hormonsubstitution in der Postmenopause nach Mammakarzinom. Endokri-nologie-Info 6 13: 281Google Scholar
  21. Distler W (1986) Epidemiologische und sozialmedizinische Aspekte des Klimakteriums. Gynäkologe 19: 199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dören M, Schneider HPG (1989) Klinische Erfahrungen mit Zusatz von Progesteronderivaten bei präventiver Osteoporosetherapie. In: Lauritzen C (Hrsg) MenoPause Hormonsubstitution heute 2, Edition Infomed, München S 109Google Scholar
  23. Edman CD (1983) Estrogen replacement therapy. In: Buchsbaum HJ (eds) The menopause. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo p 77Google Scholar
  24. Eiff von AW (1975) Blood pressure and estrogens. In: Estrogens in the postmenopause. Front Horm Res 3.177Google Scholar
  25. Enzelsberger H, Metka M, Heytmanek G (1989) Untersuchungen zur Psychosomatik an Frauen im Klimakterium. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk 49: 289Google Scholar
  26. Fletcher CD, Farish E, Dagen MM, Hart DM (1987) A comparison of the effects of lipoproteins of two progestogens used during cyclical hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 9: 253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Flowers CE, Wilborn WH, Hyde BM (1983) Mechanisms of uterine bleeding in postmenopausal patients receiving estrogen alone or with a progestin. Obstet Gynecol 61: 135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fraser IS (1986) A review of the role of progestogens in hormonal replacement therapy: influence on bleeding patterns. Maturitas 8: 113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frick-Bruder V (1980) Der therapeutische Umgang mit psychosozialen und psychosomatischen Problemen der Frau im Klimakterium. Gynäkologe 13: 164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gambrell RD (1983) Breast disease in the postmenopausal years. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 1: 27Google Scholar
  31. Gambrell RD, (1986) Prevention of endometrial cancer with progestogens. Maturitas 8: 159–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gambrell RD, (1987a) Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer. Maturitas 9: 123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gambrell RD, (1987b) Use of progestogen therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gambrell RD, Maier RC, Sanders BI, (1983) Decreased incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal estrogen-proge-stogen users. Obstet Gynecol 62: 435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ginsburg J, Swinhoe J, O, Reilly B (1981) Cardiovascular responses during the menopausal hot flush. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 88: 925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordan GS (1977) Postmenopausal osteoporosis, cause prevention, and treatment. In: Greenblatt RB, Studd J (eds) Clinics in obstetrics and gynecology 4. Saunders London, p 169Google Scholar
  37. Hammond CB, Maxson WS (1982) Current status of estrogen therapy for the menopause. Fertil Steril 37: 5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammond CB, Jelovsek FR, Lee KL, Creasman WT, Parker RT (1979) Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy. I. Metabolic effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hammond MC, Hatley L, Talbert LM, (1984) A double blind study to evaluate the effect of methyldopa on menopausal vasomotor flushes. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 58: 1158Google Scholar
  40. Heaney RP (1988) Nutritional factors in bone health. In: Riggs BL, Melton LJ (eds) Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Raven, New York, p 359Google Scholar
  41. Heister R (1989) Herz und Kreislauf in der Postmenopause. Gynaecologica 13 [Suppl 1]Google Scholar
  42. Henderson BE, Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Mack TM (1986) Estrogen use and cardiovascular disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154: 1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hesch RD (1987) Prävention der Osteoporose durch eine Substitutionsbehandlung der menopausalen Frau. Salzburger Menopause-Symposion. Endokrinologie-Info 1: 29Google Scholar
  44. Hesch RD, Völker W, Schneider HPG (1985) Prävention der Osteoporose. Dtsch Ärztebl 82: 485Google Scholar
  45. Hillner BE, Hollenberg JP, Pauker SG (1986) Postmenopausal estrogens in prevention of osteoporosis. Benefit virtually without risk of cardiovascular effects are considered. Am J Med 80: 1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirvonen E, Mälkönen M, Manninen V (1981) Effects of different progestogens on lipoproteins during postmenopausal replacement therapy. N Engl J Med 304: 560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Horwitz RI, Feinstein AR, (1978) Alternative analytic methods for case control studies of estrogens and endometrial cancer. N Engl J Med 299: 1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hulka BS (1980) Effect of exogenous estrogen on postmenopausal women: The epidemiologic evidence. Obstet Gynecol Surv 35 [Suppl]: 389Google Scholar
  49. Jensen J, Christiansen C (1987) Dose-response effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins following combined oestrogenprogestogen therapy in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 9: 259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jensen J, Nilas L, Christiansen C (1986) Cyclic changes in serum cholesterol and lipoproteins following different doses of combined postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93: 613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jensen J, Riis BJ, Strom V, Nilas L, Christiansen C (1987a) Long-term effects of percutaneous estrogens and oral progesterone on serum lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 66–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen J, Riis BJ, Christiansen C (1987b) Cyproterone acetate, an alternative progestogen in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy? Effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 94: 136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kännel WB (1982) Meaning of the downward trend in cardiovascular mortality. JAMA 247: 877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan NM (1985) Estrogen replacement therapy. Effect on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. J Reprod Med 30: 802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kiel DP, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PWF, Moskowitz MK (1987) Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmeopausal women. N Engl J Med 317: 1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuhl H (1988) Atherosklerose-Prophylaxe durch Östrogensubstitution? Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 48: 747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuhl H, Taubert HD (1986) Hormontherapie und Karzinomrisiko im Klimakterium. Gynäkologe 19: 259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuhl H, Taubert HD (1987) Das Klimakterium. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  59. Lafferty FW, Helmuth DO (1985) Postmenopausal estrogen replacement: The prevention of osteoporosis and systemic effects. Maturitas 7: 147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lane G, Siddle NC, Ryders TA et al. (1986) Effects of dydrogesterone on the oestrogenized postmenopausal endometrium. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93: 55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Larsson-Cohn U, u. Wallentin L (1977) Metabolic and hormonal effects of postmenopausal oestrogen replacement treatment. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86: 583–596Google Scholar
  62. Laufer LR, Erlik Y, Meldrum DR, Judd HL (1982) Effect of Clonidine on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 60: 583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lauritzen C (1972) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Hormontherapie im Klimakterium. Fortsch Med 26: 921Google Scholar
  64. Lauritzen C (1974) Grundlegende Daten über das Klimakterium und seine Beschwerden. Therapiewoche 45: 5161Google Scholar
  65. Lauritzen C (1976) The female climacteric syndrome: significance, problems, treatment. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand [Suppl] 51: 47Google Scholar
  66. Lauritzen C (1986) Kosten-Nutzen-Risiko-Analyse der Östrogenbehandlung im Klimakterium. Gynäkologe 19: 266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lauritzen C (1987) Endokrinologie der Prä-und Postmenopause. In: Lauritzen CH (Hrsg) Gynäkologische Endokrinologie. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, S 217Google Scholar
  68. Lauritzen C (1988) Vergleichende Prüfung einer transdermalen Estrogenverabfolgung mittels Pflasteranwendung gegen ein orales Estrogenpräparat. MMW 130: [Suppl 1] 66Google Scholar
  69. Lauritzen C (1989) Der Einfluß von Rauchen auf die hormonale Funktion sowie Eintritt und Verlauf der Menopause. In: Lauritzen C (Hrsg) Menopause: Hormonsubstitution heute. 2. Edition. Infomed, München, S 35Google Scholar
  70. Lauritzen C (1990a) Die Verhütung der Postmenopausen-Osteoporose durch Östrogen-Gestagen-Substitution. Dtsch Ärzteb 87: A1974Google Scholar
  71. Lauritzen C (1990b) Gestagene und Lipidstoffwechsel. Gynäkologie 6: 4Google Scholar
  72. Lauritzen C (1990c) Nichthormonale Therapie klimakterischer Beschwerden. Gynäkol Prax 14: 43–56Google Scholar
  73. Lee NC, Wingo PA, Peterson HB et al. (1986) Estrogen therapy and the risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer. In: Mastroianni L Jr, Paulsen CA (eds) Aging, reproduction, and the climacteric. Plenum New York p. 287Google Scholar
  74. Leiblum SR, Swartzman LC (1986) Women’s attitudes toward the menopause: an update. Maturitas 8: 47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemp GF, Zwaag RV, Hughes JP, Maddock V, Ramanathan KB, Kroetz FW, Mirvis D, Sullivan JM (1986) The effect of postmenopausal estrogen use on coronary atherosclerosis. 40th Annual Meeting of the Am Soc for the Study of Arteriosclerosis. Am Heart Ass Monogr, Abstract 1323Google Scholar
  76. Lightman SL, Jacobs HS, Maguire AK (1982) Down-regulation of gonadotrophin secretion in postmenopausal women by a superactive LHRH analogue: lack of effect on menopausal flushing. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 89: 977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lindsay R (1987) Estrogen therapy in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lindsay R (1988) Sex steroids in the pathogenesis and prevention of osteoporosis. In: Riggs BL, Melton LJ (eds) Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Raven, New York, p 333Google Scholar
  79. Lindsay R, Herrington BS (1983) Estrogens and osteoporosis. Sem Reprod Endocrinol 1: 55Google Scholar
  80. Lobo RA (1989) Cardiovascular disease, menopause, and the influence of hormone replacement therapy. In: Hammond CB, Haseltine FP, Schiff I (eds) Menopause. Evaluation, treatment, and health concerns. Liss, New York, p 313Google Scholar
  81. Lobo RA, McCormick W, Singer F et al. (1984) Depo-medroxy-progesterone acetate compared with conjugated estrogens for the treatment of postmenopausal Women. Obstet Gynecol 63: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mashchak CA, Lobo RA (1985) Estrogen replacement therapy and hypertension. J Reprod Med 30. 805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McGuire M, Labby D (1983) Sexuality and the menopausal and postmenopausal women. Sem Reprod Endocrinol 1: 69Google Scholar
  84. Melchert F (1988) Ein transdermales therapeutisches System im Vergleich zur peroralen Östrogensubstitution für die Behandlung des klimakterischen Syndroms. MMW 130: [Suppl 1] 69Google Scholar
  85. Meldrum DR (1983) The pathophysiology of postmenopausal Symptoms. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 1: 11Google Scholar
  86. Meldrum DR, Defazio JD, Erlik Y et al. (1984) Pituitary hormones during the menopausal hot flash. Obstet Gynecol 64: 752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Melton LJ III (1988) Epidemiology of fractures. In: Riggs BL, Melton LJ III (eds) Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Raven, New York, p 133Google Scholar
  88. Metka M, Heytmanek G, Enzelsberger H, Schurz B, Kurz CH (1988) Der Gelenkschmerz in der Prä-und Postmenopause-Arthropathia climacterica. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 48: 232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Minne HW (1989) Zur Entstehung des Knochenmasseverlustes in den Wechseljahren und der daraus resultierenden Wirbelkörperfrakturen. In: Lauritzen CH (Hrsg) Menopause: Hormonsubstitution heute. 2. Edition. Infomed, München S 104Google Scholar
  90. Molinski H (1986) Die psychische und familiäre Situation der alternden Frau unter Berücksichtigung psycho-pathologischer Verhaltensmuster. Gynäkologe 19: 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Morrison JC, Martin DC, Blair RA et al. (1980) The use of medroxyprogesterone acetate for relief of climacteric symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nagamani M, Kelver ME, Smith ER (1987) Treatment of menopausal hot flashes with transdermal administration of clonidine. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ottosson UB, Johansson BG, Schoultz von B (1985) Subtractions of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during estrogen replacement therapy: A comparison between progestogens and natural progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Padwick ML, Endacott J, Whitehead MI (1985) Efficacy, acceptability, and metabolic effects of transdermal estradiol in the management of postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 152: 1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Padwick ML, Pryse-Davies J, Whitehead MI (1986) A simple method for determining the optimal dosage of progestin in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens. N Engl J Med 315: 930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Perlman J, Wolf P, Finucane F, Madans J (1989) Menopause and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in women. In: Hammond CB, Haseltine FP, Schiff I (eds) Menopause. Evaluation, treatment, and health concerns. Liss, New York, p 283Google Scholar
  97. Petitti DB, Perlmann JA, Sidney S (1986) Postmenopausal estrogen use and heart disease. New Engl J Med 315: 131Google Scholar
  98. Petitti DB, Perlmann JA, Sidney S (1987) Noncontraceptive estrogens and mortality: Long-term followup of women in the Walnut Creek Study. Obstet Gynecol 70: 289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Pfeffer RI, Kurosaki TT, Charlton SK (1979) Estrogen use and blood pressure in later life. Am J Epidemiol 110. 469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Plotz EJ (1982) Die Hormonbehandlung in der Postmenopause. Eine Nutzen-Risiko-Abwägung. Gynäkologe 15: 2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Powers MS, Schenkel L, Darley PE et al. (1988) Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik transdermaler Dosierungsformen von 17β-Estradiol. MMW 130: 7Google Scholar
  102. Prior JC (1990) Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocr Reviews 11: 386Google Scholar
  103. Punnonen R, Vilska S, Rauramo L (1984) Skinfold thickness and long-term postmenopausal hormone therapy. Maturitas 5: 259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Quigley MET, Martin PL, Burnier AM, Brooks P (1987) Estrogen therapy arrests bone loss in elderly women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ribot C, Tremollieres F, Pouilles JM, Louvet P, Peyron R (1989) Preventive effects of transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol on postmenopausal bone loss: a 2-year prospective study. Gynecol Endocrinol 3: 259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Riggs BL (1987) Pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Riggs BL (1988) Practical management of the patient with osteoporosis. In: Riggs BL, Melton LJ (eds) Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Raven, New York, p 481Google Scholar
  108. Riis BJ, Thomsen K, Strøm V, Christiansen C (1987) The effect of percutaneous estradiol and natural progesterone on postmenopausal bone loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Riis BJ, Johansen J, Christiansen C (1988) Continuous oestrogen-progestogen treatment and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 10: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ringe JD (1988) Steigerung der oralen Kalziumzufuhr — Nutzen oder Risiko? Dtsch Med Wochenschr 113: 1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ringe JD, Greten H, Windler E (1989) Gefäßprotektion. Ein zusätzliches Argument für die Östrogen/Gestagen-Substitution in der Postmenopause? Dtsch Ärzteb 86: A2351Google Scholar
  112. Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A (1983) Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 1: 19Google Scholar
  113. Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Mack TM, Arthur M, Henderson BE (1981) Menopausal oestrogen therapy and protection from death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet I: 858Google Scholar
  114. Schiff I, Tulchinsky D, Cramer D, Ryan K (1980) Oral medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms. JAMA 244: 1443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schneider HPG (1989) Grundlagen der Östrogentherapie. Arch Gynecol Obstet 246: 76Google Scholar
  116. Semmens JP (1983) Sexuality. In: Buchsbaum JH (eds) The Menopause. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, p 173Google Scholar
  117. Shaw RW, Kerr-Wilson RHJ, Fraser HM, McNeilly AS, Howie PW, Sandow J (1985) Effect of an intranasal LRHR agonist on gonadotrophins and hot flushes in post-menopausal women. Maturitas 7: 161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sherman BM, West JH, Korenman SG (1976) The menopausal transition: analysis of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations during menstrual cycles of older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42: 629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sherwin BB, Gelfand MM (1984) Effects of parenteral adminstration of estrogen and androgen on plasma hormone levels and hot flushes in the surgical menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148: 552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sherwin BB, Gelfand MM (1985) Differential symptom response to parenteral estrogen and/or androgen administration in the surgical menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sherwin BB, Gelfand MM (1989) A prospective one-year study of estrogen and progestin in postmenopausal women: effects on clinical symptoms and lipoprotein lipids. Obstet Gynecol 73: 759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Staland B, (1985) Continuous treatment with a combination of estrogen and gestagen — a way of avoiding endometrial stimulation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand [Suppl] 130: 29Google Scholar
  123. Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH (1985) A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and coronary heart disease. New Engl J Med 313: 1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Steiner M (1983) Psychobiologic aspects of the menopausal syndrome. In: Buchsbaum HJ (eds) The menopause. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, p 151Google Scholar
  125. Steingold KA, Laufer L, Chetkowski RJ, et al. (1985) Treatment of the hot flashes with transdermal estradiol administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61: 627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Szklo MJ, Tonascia J, Gordis L, Bloom I (1984) Estrogen use and myocardial infarction risk. A case-control study. Prev Med 13: 510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Tikkanen MJ, Kuusi T, Nikkilä EA, Sipinen S (1986) Post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy: effects of progestogens on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A review. Maturitas 8: 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Treloar AE (1981) Menstrual cyclicity and the pre-menopause. Maturitas 3: 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tulandi T, Lal S, Kinch RA (1983) Effect of intravenous clonidine on menopausal flushing and luteinizing hormone secretion. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 90: 854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Utian HW (1983) The symptom complex associated with the menopause. Sem Reprod Endocrinol 1: 1Google Scholar
  131. Utian WH (1987) Overview on menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Völker W, Kannegießer U, Vasterling HW (1978) Östrogentherapie und Endometriumkarzinom. Eine randomisierte Vergleichsstudie. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd. 38: 735Google Scholar
  133. Völker W, Kannegießer U, Majewski A (1980) Östrogentherapie und Mammakarzinom. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd. 40: 125Google Scholar
  134. Völker W, Hesch RD, Schneider HPG (1985) Gedanken zur Langzeit-Östrogen-Substitution — müssen Gynäkologen umdenken? Geburtsh Frauenheilk. 45: 326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wenderlein JM (1982) Depression und Klimakterium. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk. 42: 833Google Scholar
  136. Whitehead MI, Fraser D (1987) Controversies concerning the safety of estrogen replacement therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Whitehead MI, Townsend PT, Pryse-Davies J et al. (1982) Effects of various types and dosages of progestogens on the postmenopausal endometrium. J Reprod Med 27: 539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Whitehead MI, Lane G, Siddle N et al. (1983) Avoidance of endometrial hyper Stimulation in estrogen treated postmenopausal women. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 1: 41Google Scholar
  139. Wilson PWF, Garrison RJ, Castelli WP (1985) Postmenopausal estrogen use, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular morbidity in women over 50. New Eng J Med 313: 1083Google Scholar
  140. Wolff F (1988) Östrogensubstitutionstherapie im Klimakterium. MMW 130: [Suppl 1] 60Google Scholar
  141. Wren BG (1988) Cost-effectiveness of hormonal replacement therapy. In: Zichella L et al. (eds) The climacteric and beyond. Parthenon, Casterton Hall, p 55Google Scholar
  142. Ziegler R (1989) Östrogene und Osteoporose. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 49: 82PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freimut A. Leidenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Hormon- und FortpflanzungsforschungHamburg 50Deutschland

Personalised recommendations