• P. F. Stevens
  • J. Luteyn
  • E. G. H. Oliver
  • T. L. Bell
  • E. A. Brown
  • R. K. Crowden
  • A. S. George
  • G. J. Jordan
  • P. Ladd
  • K. Lemson
  • C. B. Mclean
  • Y. Menadue
  • J. S. Pate
  • H. M. Stace
  • C. M. Weiller
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 6)


Evergreen or deciduous shrubs, rarely scandent, lianes, or trees, epiphytic or not, or herbs, rarely achlorophyllous and/or rhizomatous; hair roots present, with investing mycorrhizal fungal hyphae forming a loose covering over hair roots and penetrating only the outer cortical cells; indumentum unicellular and multicellular hairs, or unicellular hairs only, or rarely none; terminal bud scaly, rarely naked, or aborting; leaves spiral, opposite or whorled, entire or serrate, rarely margins strongly revolute and leaves needle-like (“ericoid”), exstipulate; inflorescences terminal or axillary, usually racemose; prophylls paired, rarely 0; flowers rarely single, rarely multibracteolate, usually conspicuous, hermaphroditic, rarely unisexual, poly-symmetrical, rarely monosymmetrical, sepals (2−)4–5(−7), fused at the very base, petals (3)4–5(−7), fused, rarely free or fused as a cap; stamens (2−)5(−8), 10(−16), free from the corolla, rarely adnate; anthers tetrasporangiate, rarely bisporangiate, inverting during development, with 2(4) apparently terminal or dorsal appendages or not, dehiscence introrse or terminal, rarely latrorse or extrorse, with pores or short, rarely long slits or a slit; endothecium lacking, rarely present; pollen in tetrahedral tetrads or rarely in monads; nectary present, rarely absent; ovary superior to inferior, (1−)4–5(−12)-carpellate, placentation axile to intruded parietal, rarely apical or basal; ovules (1−)numerous/carpel, anatropous to subcampylotropous, unitegmic, tenuinucellate; style usually about as long as corolla, hollow, rarely expanded at the apex; stigma punctate to lobed; fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule, rarely calyx fleshy; seeds small to minute, testa usually single-layered, variously winged or not; embryo straight, fusiform, rarely embryo minute, undifferentiated; endosperm cellular, fleshy, well developed, with haustoria at both ends; germination epigeal.


Hair Root Corolla Tube Corolla Lobe Arnold Arbor Calyx Tube 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Allaway, W.G., Ashford, A.E. 1996. Structure of the hair roots in Lysinema ciliatum R. Br. and its implications for their water relations. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 383–388.Google Scholar
  2. Anderberg, A.A. 1992. The circumscription of the Ericales, and their cladistic relationships to the families of “higher” dicotyledons. Syst. Bot. 17: 660–675.Google Scholar
  3. Anderberg, A.A. 1993. Cladistic interrelationships and major clades of the Ericales. Pl. Syst. Evol. 184: 207–231.Google Scholar
  4. Anderberg, A.A. 1994. Phylogeny of the Empetraceae, with special emphasis on character evolution in the genus Empetrum. Syst. Bot. 19: 35–46.Google Scholar
  5. Anderberg, A.A. 1994. Cladistic analysis of Enkianthus with notes on the early diversification of the Ericaceae. Nordic J. Bot. 14: 385–401.Google Scholar
  6. Anderberg, A.A. et al. 2002. See general references.Google Scholar
  7. Ashford, A.E., Allaway, W.G., Reed, M.L. 1996. A possible role for thick-walled epidermal cells in the mycorrhizal hair roots of Lysinema ciliatum R. Br. and other Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 375–381.Google Scholar
  8. Atkinson, R., Jong, K., Argent, G. 1995. Cytotaxonomic observations in tropical Vaccinieae (Ericaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 117: 135–145.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, T.L. 1995. Biology of Australian Epacridaceae: with special reference to growth, fire response and mycorrhizal nutrition. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  10. Bell, T.L., Ojeda, F. 1999. Underground starch storage in Erica species of the Cape floristic region–differences between seeders and resprouters. New Phytol. 144: 143–152.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, T.L., Pate, J.S. 1996a. Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition in mycorrhizal Epacridaceae of South-west Australia. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 389–397.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, T.L., Pate, J.S. 1996b. Growth and fire response of selected Epacridaceae of south-western Australia. Austr. J. Bot. 44: 509–526.Google Scholar
  13. Bell, T.L., Pate, J.S., Dixon, K.W. 1994. Response of mycorrhiza seedlings of SW Australian sandplain Epacridaceae to added nitrogen and phosphorus. J. Exp. Bot. 45: 779–790.Google Scholar
  14. Bell, T.L., Pate, J.S., Dixon, KW. 1996. Relationships between fire response, morphology, root anatomy and starch distribution in south-west Australian Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 357–364.Google Scholar
  15. Bergero, R., Perotto, S., Girlanda, M., Vidano, G., Luppi, A.M. 2000. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex). Molec. Ecol. 9: 1639–1649.Google Scholar
  16. Bidartondo, M.I., Bruns, T.D. 2001. Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Montropoideae (Ericaceae): widespread phylogenetic and geographic structure. Molec. Ecol. 10: 2285–2295.Google Scholar
  17. Björkman, E. 1960. Monotropa hypopitys L. - an epiparasite on tree roots. Physiol. Plant. ( Copenhagen ) 13: 308–327.Google Scholar
  18. Bohm, B.A., Averett, J.E. 1989. Flavonoids in some Monotropoideae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 17: 399–401.Google Scholar
  19. Bohm, B.A., Brim, S.W., Hebda, R.J., Stevens, P.F. 1978. Generic limits in the tribe Cladothamneae (Ericaceae) and its position in the Rhododendroideae. J. Arnold Arbor. 59: 311–341.Google Scholar
  20. Briggs, C.L., Ashford, A.E. 2001. Structure and composition of the thick wall in hair root epidermal cells of Woolsia pungens. New Phytol. 149: 219–232.Google Scholar
  21. Briggs, J.D., Leigh, J.H. 1989. Rare or threatened Australian plants: 1988 revised edition. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  22. Brough, P. 1924. Studies in the Epacridaceae. I. The life history of Styphelia longifolia (R. Br.). Proc. Linn. Soc. New S. Wales 49: 162–178.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, E.M., Buridge, J.D., Dell, J., Edinger, D., Hopper, S.D., Wills, R.T. 1997. Pollination in Western Australia. A database of animals visiting flowers. Handbook no. 15, Western Australian Naturalists’ Club.Google Scholar
  24. Cane, J.H., Eickwort, G.C., Wesley, F.R., Spielholz, J. 1985. Pollination ecology of Vaccinium stamineum ( Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae). Am. J. Bot. 72: 135–142.Google Scholar
  25. Carlquist, S. 1989. Wood and bark anatomy of Empetraceae; comments on paedomorphosis in woods of certain small shrubs. Aliso 12: 497–515.Google Scholar
  26. Cherry, W., Gadek, P.A., Brown, E.A., Heslewood, M.M., Quinn, C.J. 2001. Pentachondra dehiscens sp. nov. - an aberrant new member of Styphelieae. Austr. Syst. Bot. 14: 513–533.Google Scholar
  27. Clemants, S.E. 1995. Bejaria Mutis ex Linnaeus. In: Luteyn, J.L. (ed.) Flora neotropica. Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II, the superior-ovaried genera. New York: New York Botanical Garden, pp. 54–106.Google Scholar
  28. Clifford, H.T., Drake, W.E. 1981. Pollination and dispersal in eastern Australian heathlands. In: Specht, R.L. (ed.) Ecosystems of the World 9B. Heathlands and related shrublands. Amsterdam. Elsevier, pp. 39–49.Google Scholar
  29. Collinson, M.E., Crane, P.R. 1978. Rhododendron seeds from the Palaeocene of England. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 76: 195–205.Google Scholar
  30. Colwell, R.K. 1973. Competition and coexistence in a simple tropical community. Am. Nat. 107: 737–760.Google Scholar
  31. Copeland, H.F. 1935. On the genus Pityopus. Madrono 3: 154–168.Google Scholar
  32. Copeland, H.F. 1941. Further studies on Monotropoideae. Madrono 6: 97–119.Google Scholar
  33. Copeland, H.F. 1943. A study, anatomic and taxonomic, of the genera of Rhododendroideae. Am. Midl. Nat. 30: 533–625.Google Scholar
  34. Copeland, H.F. 1947. Observations on the structure and classification of the Pyroleae. Madrono 9: 65–102.Google Scholar
  35. Copeland, H.F. 1954. Observations on certain Epacridaceae. Am. J. Bot. 41: 215–222.Google Scholar
  36. Cox, H.T. 1948a. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the Ericales. I. Ericaceae - subfamily Rhododendroideae. Am. Midl. Nat. 39: 220–245.Google Scholar
  37. Cox, H.T. 1948b. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the Ericales. II. Ericaeae subfamily Arbutoideae. Am. Midl. Nat. 40: 493–516.Google Scholar
  38. Crayn, D.M., Kron, K.A., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J. 1996. Delimitation of Epacridaceae: preliminary molecular evidence. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 317–321.Google Scholar
  39. Crayn, D.M., Kron, K.A., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J. 1998. Phylogenetics and evolution of epacrids: a molecular analysis using the plastid gene rbcL with a reappraisal of the position of Lebetanthus. Austr. J. Bot. 46: 187–200.Google Scholar
  40. Crepet, W.L., Nixon, K.C., Gandolfo, M.A. 2001. A Cretaceous Atlantic Coastal Plain “ericoid” complex. In: Botany 2001: plants and people, p. 62.Google Scholar
  41. Cullings, K.W. 1994. Molecular phylogeny of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) with a note on the placement of the Pyroloideae. J. Evol. Biol. 7: 501–516.Google Scholar
  42. Cullings, K.W. 1996. Single phylogenetic origin of ericoid myc- orrhizads within the Ericaceae. Can. J. Bot. 74: 1896–1909.Google Scholar
  43. Cullings, K.W., Szaro, T.M., Bruns, T.D. 1996. Evolution of extreme specialization within a lineage of ectomycorrhizal epiparasites. Nature 379: 63–66.Google Scholar
  44. D’Arcy, W.G., Keating, R.C., Buchmann, S.L. 1996. The calcium oxalate package or so-called resorbtion tissue in some angiosperm anthers. In: D’Arcy, W.G., Keating, R.C. (eds.) The anther: form, function and phylogeny. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 158–191.Google Scholar
  45. Dawson, M.I. 2000. Index of chromosome numbers in the Epacridaceae. Proc. Linn Soc. New S. Wales 73: 37–56.Google Scholar
  46. Diggs, G.M. Jr. 1995. Comarostaphylis Zuccarini. In: Luteyn, J.L. (ed.) Flora neotropica. Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II, the superior-ovaried genera. New York: New York Botanical Garden, pp. 146–193.Google Scholar
  47. Dimitri, M.J. 1972. La region de los bosques andinopatagonicos. Buenos Aires: INTA.Google Scholar
  48. Dome, A.P. 1999. x Phylliopsis - Phyllodoce spp. x Kalmiopsis - ericaceous aristocrats. Rock Gard. Quart. 57: 35–45.Google Scholar
  49. Drude, O. 1889. Epacridaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, vol. IV, 1. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 66–79.Google Scholar
  50. Duddridge, J., Read, D.J. 1982. An ultrastructural analysis of the development of mycorrhizas in Rhododendron ponticum. Can. J. Bot. 60: 2345–2356.Google Scholar
  51. Eck, P. 1990. The American cranberry. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Etienne, P. 1919. Etude anatomique de la famille des Épacridacées. Thèse Doctorale. Toulouse: Faculté Pharmacologique, Université de Toulouse.Google Scholar
  53. Ewane-Nyambi, G., Bois, P., Raymond, G. 1993. The effects of Agauria salicifolia leaf extract on calcium current and excitation-contraction coupling of isolated frog muscle cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 38: 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fischer, O. 1992. New knowledges about the distribution of the genus Kalmia L. in the European Tertiary. Cour. Forsch.Inst. Senck. 147: 383–391.Google Scholar
  55. Foss, P.J., Doyle, G.J. 1988. A palynological study of the Irish Ericaceae and Empetrum. Pollen Spores 30: 151–178.Google Scholar
  56. Freudenstein, J.V. 1999. Relationships and character transformation in Pyroloideae (Ericaeae) based on ITS sequences, morphology and development. Syst. Bot. 24: 398–408.Google Scholar
  57. Friis, E.M. 1985. Angiosperm fruits and seeds from the Middle Miocene of Jutland (Denmark). Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Biolog. Skr. 24 (3): 1–165.Google Scholar
  58. Furman, T.E., Trappe, J.M. 1971. Phylogeny and ecology of mycotropic echlorophyllous angiosperms. Quart. Rev. Biol. 46: 219–225.Google Scholar
  59. Godley, E.J. 1966. Breeding systems in New Zealand plants. 4. Self sterility in Pentachondra pumila. New Zeal. J. Bot. 53: 324–355.Google Scholar
  60. Haber, E. 1987. Variability, distribution, and systematics of Pyrola picta s.l. (Ericaceae) in western North America. Syst. Bot. 12: 324–335.Google Scholar
  61. Hagerup, O. 1953. The morphology and systematics of the leaves in Ericales. Phytomorphology 3: 459–464.Google Scholar
  62. Hagerup, E., Hagerup, O. 1953. Thrips pollination of Erica tetralix. New Phytol. 52: 1–7.Google Scholar
  63. Hallé, E, Oldeman, R.A.A., Tomlinson, P.B. 1978. Tropical trees and forests. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Hansen, I. 1950. Die europäischen Arten der Gattung Erica L. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 1–81.Google Scholar
  65. Hara, N. 1958. Structure of vegetative shoot apex and development of the leaf in the Ericaceae and their allies. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7: 367–450.Google Scholar
  66. Harborne, J.B., Williams, C.A. 1973. A chemotaxonomic survey of flavonoids and simple phenols in leaves of the Ericaceae. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 66: 37–54.Google Scholar
  67. Henderson, M.W. 1919. A comparative study of the structure and saprophytism of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae, with reference to their derivation from the Ericaceae. Contrib. Bot. Lab. Morris Lab. Univ. Penn. 5: 42–109.Google Scholar
  68. Hermann, P.M., Cambi, V.N. 1992. Nuevas datos sobre la sexualidad de Gaultheria caespitosa P. and E. (Ericaceae). Parodiana 7: 83–90.Google Scholar
  69. Hermann, P.M., Palser, B.F. 2000. Stamen development in the Ericaceae. I. Anther wall, microsporogenesis, inversion and appendages. Am. J. Bot. 87: 934–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Heslop Harrison, Y., Shivanna, K.R. 1977. The receptive surface of the angiosperm stigma. Ann. Bot. II, 41: 1233–1258.Google Scholar
  71. Higham, R.K., McQuillan, P.B. 2000. Cyathodes divaricata (Epacridaceae) - the first record of a bird-pollinated dioecious plant in the Australian flora. Austr. J. Bot. 48: 93–99.Google Scholar
  72. Hileman, L.C., Vasey, M.C., Parker, V.T. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Arbutoideae (Ericaceae): implications for the Madrean-Tethyan hypothesis. Syst. Bot. 26: 131–143.Google Scholar
  73. Hutton, B.J. 1997. Biology and ecology of endophytes of Australian native heaths (Epacridaceae). Ph.D Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  74. Hutton, B.J., Dixon, K.W., Sivasithamparam, K. 1994. Ericoid endophytes of Western Australian heaths ( Epacridaceae ). New Phytol. 127: 557–566.Google Scholar
  75. Jackes, B.R. 1968. Floral anatomy of the genus Oligarrhena R. Br. (Epacridaceae). Austr. J. Bot. 16: 451–454.Google Scholar
  76. Janaki Ammal, E.K., Enoch, I.C., Bridgwater, M. 1950. Chromosome numbers in species of Rhododendron. Rhodod. Year Book 5: 78–95.Google Scholar
  77. Jarman, S.J. 1975. Experimental taxonomy in the family Epacridaceae. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Tasmania.Google Scholar
  78. Jarman, S.J., Crowden, R.K. 1974. Anthocyanins in the Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 13: 743–750.Google Scholar
  79. Jarman, S.J., Crowden, R.K. 1977. The occurrence of flavonol arabinosides in the Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 16: 929–930.Google Scholar
  80. Johri, B.M. et al. 1992. See general references.Google Scholar
  81. Jordan, G.J., Hill, R.S. 1996. The fossil record of the Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 341–346.Google Scholar
  82. Judd, W.S. 1979. Generic relationships in the Andromeae (Ericaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 60: 477–503.Google Scholar
  83. Judd, W.S. 1981. A monograph of Lyonia (Ericaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 62: 63–128,129–209, 315–436.Google Scholar
  84. Judd, W.S. 1984. A taxonomic revision of the American species of Agarista (Ericaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 65: 255–342.Google Scholar
  85. Judd, W.S. 1986. A taxonomic revision of Craibiodendron (Ericaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 67: 441–469.Google Scholar
  86. Judd, W.S., Kron, K.A. 1993. Circumscription of Ericaceae ( Ericales) as determined by preliminary cladistic analyses based on morphological, anatomical and embryological features. Brittonia 45: 99–114.Google Scholar
  87. Keighery, G.J. 1996. Phytogeography, biology and conservation of Western Australian Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 347–355.Google Scholar
  88. Knobloch, E., Mai, D.H. 1986. Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rosp. Ústfed. Ústav Geol. 47: 1–215.Google Scholar
  89. Knudsen, J.T., Oleson, M.J. 1993. Buzz-pollination and patterns of variation in several traits in north European Pyrolaceae. Am. J. Bot. 80: 900–193.Google Scholar
  90. Knudsen, J.T., Tollesten, L. 1991. Floral scent and intrafloral variation in Moneses and Pyrola (Pyrolaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 177: 81–91.Google Scholar
  91. Kobayashi, N., Handa, T., Yoshimyura, K., Tsumura, Y., Arisumi, K., Takayanagi, K. 2000. Evidence for introgressive hybridization based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms and morphological variation in wild evergreen azalea populations of the Kirishima mountains, Japan. Edinburgh J. Bot. 57: 209–219.Google Scholar
  92. Kraemer, M. 2001. On the pollination of Bejaria racemosa Mutis ex Linné f. (Ericaceae), an ornithophilous Andean pâramo shrub. Flora 196: 59–62.Google Scholar
  93. Kretzer, A.M., Bidartondo, M.I., Grubisha, L.C., Spatafora, J.W., Szaro, T.M., Bruns, T.D. 2000. Regional specialization of Sarcodes sanguinea on a single fungal symbiont from the Rhizopogon ellenae (Rhizopogonaceae) complex. Am. J. Bot. 87: 1778–1782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kron, K.A. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal 18s sequence data. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 293–303.Google Scholar
  95. Kron, K.A., Chase, M.W. 1993. Systematics of the Ericaceae, Empetraceae, Epacridaceae and related taxa based on rbcL sequence data. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 80: 735–741.Google Scholar
  96. Kron, K.A., Judd, W.S. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships within the Rhodoreae (Ericaceae) with specific comments on the placement of Ledum. Syst. Bot. 15: 57–68.Google Scholar
  97. Kron, K.A., King, J.M. 1996. Cladistic relationships of Kalmia, Leiophyllum, and Loiseleuria ( Phyllodoceae, Ericaceae) based on nucleotide sequences from rbcL and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS). Syst. Bot. 21: 17–29.Google Scholar
  98. Kron, K.A., Fuller, R., Crayn, D.M., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J. 1999a. Phylogenetic relationships of Styphelioideae and vaccinioids (Ericaceae s.l.) based on matK sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 218: 55–65.Google Scholar
  99. Kron, K.A., Judd, W.S., Crayn, D.M. 1999b. Phylogenetic analyses of Andromedeae (Ericaceae subfam. Vaccinioideae). Am. J. Bot. 86: 1290–1300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kron, K.A., Judd, W.S., Stevens, P.F, Crayn, D.M., Anderberg, A.A., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Luteyn, J.L. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Rev. 68: 335–423.Google Scholar
  101. Kron, K.A., Powell, E.A., Luteyn, J.L. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships within the blueberry tribe ( Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria. Am. J. Bot. 89: 327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ladd, P.G. 1994. Pollen presenters in the flowering plants - form and function. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 115: 163–193.Google Scholar
  103. Largent, D.L., Sugihara, N., Wishner, C. 1980. Occurrence of mycorrhizae on ericaceous and pyrolaceous plants in northern California. Can. J. Bot. 58: 2274–2279.Google Scholar
  104. Lavier-George, L. 1936. Recherches sur les épidermes foliaires des Philippia de Madagascar, utilisation de leurs caractères comme bases d’une classification. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8 (2): 173–199.Google Scholar
  105. Leake, J.R. 1994. Tansley Review no. 69. The biology of myco-heterotrophic (`saprophytic’) plants. New Phytol. 127: 171–216.Google Scholar
  106. Leins, P. 1964. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Studien an EricalesBlüten. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 83: 57–88.Google Scholar
  107. Lems, K. 1962a. Adaptive radiation in the Ericaceae. 1. Shoot development in the Andromedeae. Ecology 43: 524–528.Google Scholar
  108. Lems, K. 1962b. Evolutionary studies in the Ericaceae. 2. Leaf anatomy as a phylogenetic index in the Andromedeae. Bot. Gaz. 125: 178–186.Google Scholar
  109. Lemson, K.L. 1996. Current problems in the taxonomy of Andersonia R. Br. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 323–326.Google Scholar
  110. Lemson, K.L. 2001. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Andersonia R. Br (Ericaceae/Epacridaceae). Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  111. Lens, F., Gasson, P., Smets, E., Jansen, S. 2003. Comparative wood antomy of epacroids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.). Ann. Bot. II, 91: 835–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Luteyn, J.L. 1983. Cavendishia. Flora Neotropica Monograph 35. New York: New York Botanical Garden.Google Scholar
  113. Luteyn, J.L. 1995 (ed.). Flora Neotropica. Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II, the superior-ovaried genera. New York: New York Botanical Garden.Google Scholar
  114. Luteyn, J.L. 1996 [1997]. Redefinition of the neotropical genus Anthopterus (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae). Brittonia 48: 605–614.Google Scholar
  115. Luteyn, J.L. 2002. Diversity, adaptation and endemism in neotropical Ericaceae: biogeographical patterns in the Vaccinieae. Bot. Rev. 68: 55–87.Google Scholar
  116. Luteyn, J.L., Harborne, J.B., Williams, C.A. 1980. Survey of the flavonoids and simple phenols in the leaves of Cavendishia (Ericaceae). Brittonia 32: 1–16.Google Scholar
  117. Luteyn, J.L., Sylva S., D.S. 1999. “Murrí” (Antioquia Department, Colombia): hotspot for neotropical blueberries ( Ericaceae: Vaccinieae). Brittonia 51: 280–302.Google Scholar
  118. Matthews, J.R., Knox, E.M. 1926. The comparative morphology of the stamen in the Ericaceae. Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 29: 243–281.Google Scholar
  119. McCloskey, R. 1948. Blueberries for Sal. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  120. McConchie, C.A., Hough, T., Singh, M.B., Knox, R.B. 1986. Pollen presentation on petal combs in the geoflorous heath Acrotriche serrulata (Epacridaceae). Ann. Bot. II, 57: 155–164.Google Scholar
  121. McLean, C. 1995. Mycorrhizae of the Epacridaceae and its use in propagation. Combined Proc. Int. Plant Propagators 45: 108–111.Google Scholar
  122. McLean, C.B. 1999. Investigation of mycorrhizas of the Epacridacaeae. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, RMIT University.Google Scholar
  123. McLennan, E. 1935. Non-symbiotic development of seedlings of Epacris impressa Labill. New Phytol. 34: 55–63.Google Scholar
  124. Middleton, D.J. 1991. Ecology, reproductive biology and hybridization in Gaultheria L. Edinburgh J. Bot. 48: 81–89.Google Scholar
  125. Middleton, D.J., Wilcock, C.C. 1990. Chromosome counts in Gaultheria and related genera. Edinburgh J. Bot. 47: 303–313.Google Scholar
  126. Mihaich, C.M. 1989. Leaf epicuticular waxes in the taxonomy of the Epacridaceae. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tasmania.Google Scholar
  127. Moore, D.M., Harborne, J.B., Williams, C.A. 1970. Chemotaxonomy, variation and geographical distribution of the Empetraceae. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 63: 277–293.Google Scholar
  128. Naskrecki, P., Colwell, R.K. 1998. Systematics and host plant affiliations of hummingbird flower mites of the genera Tropicoseius Baker andYunker and Rhinoseius Baker and Yunker (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae). Lanham, Maryland: Entomological Society of America.Google Scholar
  129. Netolitzky, E 1926. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. Band 10. Anatomie der Angiospermen-Samen. Berlin: Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  130. Nixon, K.C., Crepet, W.L. 1993. Late Cretaceous fossil flowers of Ericalean affinity. Am. J. Bot. 80: 616–623.Google Scholar
  131. Noshiro, S., Suzuki, M., Ohba, H. 1995. Ecological wood anatomy of Nepalese Rhododendron. 1. Interspecific variation. J. Plant Res. 108: 1–9.Google Scholar
  132. Odell, A.E., Vander Kloet, S.P., Newell, R.E. 1989. Stem anatomy of Vaccinium section Cyanococcus and related taxa. Can. J. Bot. 67: 2328–2334.Google Scholar
  133. Oliver, E.G.H. 1987. Studies in the Ericoideae (Ericaceae). V. The genus Coilostigma. Bothalia 17: 163–170.Google Scholar
  134. Oliver, E.G.H. 1991. The Ericoideae (Ericaceae) - a review. Contrib. Bolus Herb. 13: 158–208.Google Scholar
  135. Oliver, E.G.H. 2000. Systematics of Ericeae (Ericaceae: Ericoideae) species with indehiscent and partially dehisent fruits. Contrib. Bolus Herb. 19: 1–483.Google Scholar
  136. Oliver, E.G.H., Linder, H.P., Rourke, J.P. 1983. Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance. Bothalia 14: 427–440.Google Scholar
  137. Olson, A.R. 1980. Seed morphology of Monotropa uniflora L. (Ericaceae). Am. J. Bot. 67: 968–974.Google Scholar
  138. Olsson, M., Shine, R., Ba’k-Olsson, E. 2000. Lizards as a plant’s `hired help’: letting pollinators in and seeds out. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 191–202.Google Scholar
  139. Palser, B.F. 1952. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. II. Megasporogenesis and megagametophyte development in the Andromedeae. Bot. Gaz. 114: 33–52.Google Scholar
  140. Palser, B.F. 1954. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. III. Organography and vascular anatomy in several species of the Arbuteae. Phytomorphology 4: 335–354.Google Scholar
  141. Palser, B.F. 1961. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. V. Organography and vascular anatomy in several United States species of the Vaccinieae. Bot. Gaz. 123: 79–111.Google Scholar
  142. Palser, B.F., Murty, Y.S. 1967. Studies in the floral morphology of the Ericales 8. Organography and vascular anatomy in Erica. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94: 243–320.Google Scholar
  143. Paterson, B.R. 1961. Studies of floral morphology in the Epacridaceae. Bot. Gaz. 122: 259–279.Google Scholar
  144. Pearson, V., Read, D.J. 1973. The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericaceae. I. The isolation of the endophyte and synthesis of mycorrhizas in aseptic culture. New Phytol. 72: 371–379.Google Scholar
  145. Perotto, S., Perotto, R., Faccio, A., Schubert, A., Varma, A., Bonfante, P. 1995. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi: cellular and molecular bases of their interactions with the host plant. Can. J. Bot. 73 (suppl.): S557 - S568.Google Scholar
  146. Philipson, W.R. 1985. Shoot morphology in Rhododendron. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43: 161–171.Google Scholar
  147. Philipson, W.R., Philipson, M.N. 1968. Diverse nodal types in Rhododendron. J. Arnold Arbor. 49: 193–225.Google Scholar
  148. Powell, E.A., Kron, K.A. 2001. An analysis of the phylogenetic relationships in the wintergreen group (Diplycosia, Gaultheria, Pernettya, Tepuia; Ericaceae). Syst. Bot. 26: 808–817.Google Scholar
  149. Powell, J.M. 1983. Epacridaceae. In: Morley, B.D., Toelken, H.R. (eds.) Flowering plants in Australia. Adelaide: Rigby Publishers, pp. 111–114.Google Scholar
  150. Powell, E.A., Kron, K.A. 2002. Hawaiian blueberries and their relatives - a phylogenetic analysis of Vaccinium sections Macropelma, Myrtillus, and Hemimyrtillus (Ericaceae). Syst. Bot. 27: 768–779.Google Scholar
  151. Powell, J.M., Chapman, A.R., Doust, A.N.L. 1987. Classification and generic status in the Epacridaceae - a preliminary analysis. Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newslett. 53: 70–78.Google Scholar
  152. Powell, J.M., Crayn, D.M., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Morrison, D.A., Chapman, A.R. 1996. Reassessment of relationships within Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 77: 305–315.Google Scholar
  153. Powell, J.M., Morrison, D.A., Gadek, P.A., Crayn, D.M., Quinn, C.J. 1997. Relationships and generic concepts within Styphelieae (Epacridaceae). Austr. Syst. Bot. 10: 15–29.Google Scholar
  154. Pyykkö, M. 1968. Embryological and anatomical studies on Finnish species of the Pyrolaceae. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5: 153–165.Google Scholar
  155. Read, D.J. 1983. The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericales. Can. J. Bot. 61: 985–1004.Google Scholar
  156. Read, D.J. 1996. The structure and function of the ericoid mycorrhizal root. Ann. Bot. N.S. 77: 365–374.Google Scholar
  157. Reader, R.J. 1977. Bog ericad flowers: self compatability and relative attractiveness to bees. Can. J. Bot. 55: 2279–2287.Google Scholar
  158. Rebelo, A.G., Siegfried, W.R., Oliver, E.G.H. 1985. Pollination syndromes of Erica species in the south-western Cape. S. Afr. J. Bot. 51: 270–270.Google Scholar
  159. Salasoo, I. 1983. Alkane distribution in epicuticular waxes of Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 22: 937–942.Google Scholar
  160. Salasoo, I. 1985. Rimuene in Epacridaceae and Ericaceae: existence of chemotypes? Austr. J. Bot. 33: 239–43.Google Scholar
  161. Savile, D.B.O. 1979. Fungi as aids in higher plant classification. Bot. Rev. 45: 377–503.Google Scholar
  162. Schneider, C.K. 1912. Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde, Bd. 2. Jena: G. Fischer.Google Scholar
  163. Scholtz, A. 1985. The palynology of the upper lacustrine sediments of the Arnot Pipe, Banke, Namaqualand. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 95: 1–109.Google Scholar
  164. Seithe, A. 1980. Rhododendron hairs and taxonomy. In: Luteyn, J.L., O’Brien, M. (eds.) Contributions toward a classification of Rhododendron. New York: New York Botanical Garden, pp. 89–115.Google Scholar
  165. Sleumer, H. 1967. Ericaceae. In: Flora Malesiana I, 6: 469–914. Leiden: Noordhoff.Google Scholar
  166. Smith, S.E., Read, D.J. 1997. Mycorrhizal symbioses. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  167. Smith-White, S. 1948a. A survey of chromosome numbers in the Epacridaceae. Proc. Linn. Soc. New S. Wales 73: 37–56.Google Scholar
  168. Smith-White, S. 1948b. Polarised segregation in a stable triploid. Heredity 2: 119–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Smith-White, S. 1955. Chromosome numbers and pollen types in the Epacridaceae. Austr. J. Bot. 3: 48–67.Google Scholar
  170. Stace, H.M., Fripp, Y.J. 1977. Raciation in Epacris impressa. III. Polymorphic populations. Austr. J. Bot. 25: 325–336.Google Scholar
  171. Stace, H.M., Chapman, A.R., Lemson, K.L, Powell, J.M. 1997. Cytoevolution, phylogeny and taxonomy in Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. II, 79: 283–290.Google Scholar
  172. Stevens, P.F. 1970a. Calluna, Cassiope, and Harrimanella, a taxonomic and evolutionary problem. New Phytol. 69: 1131–1148.Google Scholar
  173. Stevens, P.F. 1970b. Agauria and Agarista: an example of tropical translatlantic affinity. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 30: 341–359.Google Scholar
  174. Stevens, P.F. 1971. A classification of the Ericaceae: subfamilies and tribes. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 64: 1–53.Google Scholar
  175. Stevens, P.F. 1974. Circumscription and relationships of Dimorphanthera (Ericaceae) and notes on some Papuasian species. Contrib. Herb. Austr. 8: 1–34.Google Scholar
  176. Stevens, P.F. 1976. The altitudinal and geographical distribution of flower types in Rhododendron section Vireya, especially in the Papuasian species, and their significance. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 72: 1–33.Google Scholar
  177. Stevens, P.F. 1982. Phytogeography and evolution of the Ericaceae of New Guinea. In: Gressitt, J.L. (ed.) Biogeography and ecology of New Guinea. Monogr. Biol. 42, pp. 331–354.Google Scholar
  178. Stevens, P.F. 1995. Familial and interfamilial relationships. In: Luteyn, J.L. (ed.) Flora Neotropica. Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II, the superior-ovaried genera. New York: New York Botanical Garden, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  179. Takahashi, H. 1986. Pollen polyads and their variation in Chimaphila (Pyrolaceae). Grana Palynol. 25: 161–169.Google Scholar
  180. Takahashi, H. 1987. Pollen morphology and its taxonomic significance of the Monotropoideae. Bot. Mag. ( Tokyo ) 100: 385–405.Google Scholar
  181. Takahashi, H. 1988. Pollen morphology and systematics in two subfamilies of the Ericaceae: Pyroloideae and Monotropoideae. Korean J. Plant Tax. 18: 9–17.Google Scholar
  182. Takahashi, H. 1993. Seed morphology and its systematic implications in Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 154: 175–186.Google Scholar
  183. Telford, I.R. 1992. Budawangia and Rupicola, new and revised genera of Epacridaceae. Telopea 5: 229–239.Google Scholar
  184. Temple, A. 1975. Ericaceae: étude architecturale de quelques espèces. Montpellier.Google Scholar
  185. Thompson, W.K. 1986. Effects of origin, time of collection, auxins and planting media on rooting of cuttings of Epacris impressa Labill. Scientia Hortic. 30: 127–134.Google Scholar
  186. Turner, V. 1982. Marsupials as pollinators in Australia. In: Armstrong, J.A., Powell, J.M., Richards, A.J. (eds.) Pollination and evolution. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens, pp. 55–66.Google Scholar
  187. Vander Kloet, S.P. 1985. On the generic status of Symphysia. Taxon 34: 440–447.Google Scholar
  188. Vander Kloet, S.P., Dickinson, T.A., Strickland, W. 2003. From Nepal to Formosa, a much larger foot print for Vaccinium sect. Aethopus. Acta Bot. Yunn. 25: 1–24.Google Scholar
  189. Virot, R. 1975. Epacridacées. In: Flore de la Nouvelle Calédonie et Dépendances 6. Paris: Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle.Google Scholar
  190. Wallace, G.D. 1975. Studies of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): taxonomy and distribution. Wasmann J. Biol. 33: 1–88.Google Scholar
  191. Wallace, G.D. 1977. Studies of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae). Floral nectaries: anatomy and function in pollination ecology. Am. J. Bot. 64: 199–206.Google Scholar
  192. Wallace, G.D. 1987. Transfer of Eremotropa sciaphila to Monotropastrum (Ericaceae). Taxon 36: 128–130.Google Scholar
  193. Wallace, G.D. 1995. Ericaceae subfamily Monotropoideae. In: Luteyn, J.L. (ed.) Flora Neotropica. Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II, the superior-ovaried genera. New York: New York Botanical Garden, pp. 13–27.Google Scholar
  194. Warner, B.G., Chinnappa, C.C. 1986. The implications and evolutionary trends in pollen of Canadian Ericales. Can. J. Bot. 64: 3113–3126.Google Scholar
  195. Watson, L. 1962. The taxonomic significance of stomatal distribution and morphology in Epacridaceae. New Phytol. 61: 36–40.Google Scholar
  196. Watson, L. 1964a. The taxonomic significance of certain anatomical observations on Ericaceae - the Ericoideae, Calluna, and Cassiope. New Phytol. 63: 274–280.Google Scholar
  197. Watson, L. 1964b. Some remarkable inflorescences in the Ericales and their taxonomic significance. Ann. Bot. II, 28: 311–318.Google Scholar
  198. Watson, L. 1967a. The taxonomic significance of certain anatomical variations among Ericaceae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 59: 111–125.Google Scholar
  199. Watson, L. 1967b. Taxonomic implications of a comparative study of Epacridaceae. New Phytol. 66: 495–504.Google Scholar
  200. Watson, L. 1976. Ericales revisited. Taxon 25: 269–271.Google Scholar
  201. Watson, L., Williams, W.T., Lance, G.N. 1967. A mixed-data approach to Angiosperm taxonomy: the classification of Ericales. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 178: 25–35.Google Scholar
  202. Weiller, C.M. 1996a. Reassessment of Cyathodes (Epacridaceae). Austr. Syst. Bot. 9: 491–507.Google Scholar
  203. Weiller, C.M. 1996b. Planocarpa (Epacridaceae), a new generic name. Austr. Syst. Bot. 9: 509–519.Google Scholar
  204. Weiller, C.M. 1996c. Reinstatement of the genus Androstoma Hook.f. (Epacridaceae). New Zeal. J. Bot. 34: 179–185.Google Scholar
  205. Weiller, C.M., Crowden, R.K., Powell, J.M. 1994. Morphology and taxonomic significance of leaf epicuticular waxes in the Epacridaceae. Austr. Syst. Bot. 7: 125–152.Google Scholar
  206. Williams, R. 1986. Research into propagation of Australian native plants. Int. Pl. Propag. Soc. 36: 183–187.Google Scholar
  207. Wood, C.E. Jr. 1961. The genera of Ericaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 42: 10–80.Google Scholar
  208. Xiao, G., Berch, S.M. 1995. The ability of known ericoid mycorrhizal fungi to form mycorrhizae with Gaultheria shallon. Mycologia 87: 467–470.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. F. Stevens
  • J. Luteyn
  • E. G. H. Oliver
  • T. L. Bell
  • E. A. Brown
  • R. K. Crowden
  • A. S. George
  • G. J. Jordan
  • P. Ladd
  • K. Lemson
  • C. B. Mclean
  • Y. Menadue
  • J. S. Pate
  • H. M. Stace
  • C. M. Weiller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations