Trade, Human Capital and Innovation: The Engines of European Regional Growth in the 1990s

  • Harald Badinger
  • Gabriele Tondl
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


Regional disparities have been a major policy concern in the European Union, in particular since its Southern enlargement. Widely known as the Union’s cohesion problem, it gave rise to the implementation of EU regional policy supported by substantial financial assistance from the Union’s budget. Although regional disparities have shown a tendency to decrease gradually, the regional convergence process has been interrupted several times. After the post 1975 period of divergence, a period of convergence set in with the accession of Southern countries to the EU and the warm-up phase of the EU’s Internal Market 1986–1992. Thereafter, growth developments of the 1990s again suggest a modest convergence.


Human Capital Innovation Activity Public Capital Technology Spillover Spatial Weighting Matrix 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Badinger
    • 1
  • Gabriele Tondl
    • 1
  1. 1.Vienna University of Economics and Business AdministrationAustria

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