Rosacea is a chronic facial dermatosis characterized by non-transient erythema, and acute flares of papules and pustules, mainly on the convexities of the forehead, nose, cheeks and chin with concentration on the central face. Additional features of flushing and telangiectasia, oedema and rhinophyma and ocular symptoms are present in some patients. Rosacea affects both males and females in equal numbers, but male patients may develop more severe disease, and rhinophyma occurs almost exclusively in this sex. Peak onset is between 35 and 45 years. There may be accompanying seborrhoeic dermatitis and the orifices of the sebaceous glands especially around the nose, may be patulous in those prone to rhinophyma. The frequency of rosacea in populations vary from country to country and has not been accurately defined. Figures ranging from 0.09% to 10% of the population have been reported. It is uncommon in black-skinned individuals. About 15% of patients with rosacea give a positive family history of the disease.


Rosacea acne rosacea papulopustular rosacea 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further reading

  1. Bleicher PA, Charles JH, Sober AJ. Topical metronidazole therapy for rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123: 609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Drott P, et al. Successful treatment of facial blushing by endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy. Br J Dermatol 1998; 138: 639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. El-Azhary RA, Roenigk RK, Wang TD. Spectrum of results after treatment of rhinophyma with the carbon dioxide laser. Mayo Clin Proc 1991; 66: 899–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Erlt GA, Levine N, Kligman AM. A comparison of the efficacy of topical tretinoin and low-dose oral isotretinoin in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1994; 130: 319–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Knight AG, Vickers CFH. A follow-up of tetracycline-treated rosacea, with special reference to rosacea keratitis. BrJ Dermatol 1975; 93; 577–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Marsden JR, Shuster S, Neugebauer M. Response of rosacea in isotretinoin. Clin Exp Dermatol 1984; 9: 484–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sobye P. Treatment of rosacea by massage. Acta Dermatovener 1951; 31: 174–83.Google Scholar
  8. Wilkin JK. Effect of nadolol on flushing reactions in rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20: 202–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wilkin JK, De Witt S. Treatment of rosacea: topical clindamycin versus oral tetracycline. Int J Dermatol 1993; 32: 65–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations