Cell Immortality: Maintenance of Cell Division Potential

  • C. Bernstein
  • H. Bernstein
  • C. Payne
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 24)


Cell immortality refers to the ability to reproduce indefinitely. This property does not imply constancy of genetic information from generation to generation, since mutation coupled with natural selection and genetic drift may cause genetic changes over successive generations. Furthermore, cells of a germ line ordinarily undergo periodic recombination with cells of other germ lines causing additional genetic change. Nevertheless, all extant cells reflect the ability to reproduce indefinitely, since the ancestry of each cell presumably traces back, in an unbroken lineage for over 3 billion years, to the origin of life. As pointed out by Avise (1993), it is not actually cells which are immortal, but cell lineages.


Germ Line Nucleotide Excision Repair Base Excision Repair Nurse Cell Meiotic Recombination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abken H, Hegger R, Butzler C, Willecke K (1993) Short DNA sequences from the cytoplasm of mouse tumor cells induce immortalization of human lymphocytes in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 6518–6522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama M, Kyoizumi S, Hirai Y, Kusunoki Y, Iwamoto KS, Nakamura N (1995) Mutation frequency in human blood cells increases with age. Mutat Res 338: 141–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson JD (1994) Molecular biology of the cell. Garland, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 7915–7922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amicone L, Spagnoli FM, Spath G, Giordano S, Tommasini C, Bernadini S, De Luca V, Della Rocca C, Weiss MC, Comoglio PM, Tripodi M (1997) Transgenic expression in the liver of truncated Met blocks apoptosis and permits immortalization of hepatocytes. EMBO J 16: 495–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arai T, Kino I (1995) Role of apoptosis in modulation of the growth of human colorectal tubular and villous adenomas. J Pathol 176: 37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aufderheide KJ (1987) Clonal aging in Paramecium tetraurelia. II. Evidence of functional changes in the macronucleus with age. Mech Ageing Dev 37: 265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austriaco NR, Guarente LP (1997) Changes of telomere length cause reciprocal changes in the life span of mother cells in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 9768–9772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avise JC (1993) The evolutionary biology of aging, sexual reproduction, and DNA repair. Evolution 47: 1293–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baeuerle PA, Baltimore D (1996) NF-1(13: Ten years after. Cell 87: 13–20Google Scholar
  11. Barrows CH, Kokkonen G (1987) The effect of age and diet on the cellular protein synthesis of liver of male mice. Age 10: 54–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bedi A, Pasricha PJ, Akhtar AJ, Barber JP, Bedi GC, Giardiello FM, Zehnbauer BA, Hamilton SR, Jones RJ (1995) Inhibition of apoptosis during development of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 55: 1811–1816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benson FE, Stasiak A, West SC (1994) Purification and characterization of the human Rad51 protein, an analogue of E. coli RecA. EMBO J 13: 5764–5771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernstein C, Bernstein H (1991) Aging, Sex and DNA Repair. Academic Press, New York Bernstein H, Byerly HC, Hopf FA, Michod RE (1985) Genetic damage, mutation and the evolution of sex. Science 229: 1277–1281Google Scholar
  15. Bernstein H, Hopf FA, Michod RE (1987) The molecular basis of the evolution of sex. Adv Genet 24: 323–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bessho T, Mu D, Sancar A (1997) Initiation of DNA interstrand cross-link repair in humans: the nucleotide excision repair system makes dual incisions 5’ to the cross-linked base and removes a 22- to 28-nucleotide-long damage-free strand. Mol Cell Biol 17: 6822–6830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blattner FR, Plunkett G, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ Mau B, Shao Y (1997) The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277: 1453–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bodnar AG, Ouellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu C-P, Morin GB, Harley CB, Shay JW, Lichtsteiner S, Wright WE (1998) Extension of life span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. Science 279: 349–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bond J, Haughton M, Blaydes J, Gire V, Wynford-Thomas D, Wyllie F (1996) Evidence that transcriptional activation by p53 plays a direct role in the induction of cellular senescence. Oncogene 13: 2097–2104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowman PD (1985) Aging and the cell cycle in vivo and in vitro. In: Cristofolo VJ, Adelman RC, Roth GS (eds) Handbook of cell biology of aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 117–136Google Scholar
  21. Buetow DE (1985) Cell numbers vs. age in mammalian tissues and organs. In: Cristofolo VJ, Adelman RC, Roth GS (eds) Handbook of cell biology of aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 1–115Google Scholar
  22. Burkle A, Grube K, Muller M, Wolf I, Heller B, Kupper JH (1995) Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: correlation of enzyme activity with the life span of mammalian species and use of a dominant negative version to elucidate biological functions of poly(ADP ribosyl)ation. In: Cutler RG, Packer L, Bertram J, Mori A (eds) Oxidative stress and aging. Birkhauser, Basle/Switzerland, pp 111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cai Q, Tian L, Wei H (1996) Age-dependent increase of indigenous DNA adducts in rat brain is associated with a lipid peroxidation product. Exp Gerontol 31: 387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Camerini-Otero RD, Hsieh P (1995) Homologous recombination proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Annu Rev Genet 29: 509–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cerutti H, Johnson AM, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1995) Inhibition of chloroplast DNA recombination and repair by dominant negative mutants of Escherichia coli RecA. Molec Cell Biol 15: 3003–3011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheah KSE, Osborne DJ (1978) DNA lesions occur with loss of viability in embryos of aging rye seed. Nature (Lond) 272: 593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheah PY (1990) Hypotheses for the etiology of colorectal cancer. An overview. Nutr and Cancer 14: 5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chu G (1997) Double-strand break repair. J Biol Chem 272: 24097–24100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Corominas M, Mesquita C (1989) DNA damage does not induce lethal depletion of NAD during chicken spermatogenesis. In: Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL (eds) ADP-ribose transfer reactions: Mechanisms and biological significance. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 326–329Google Scholar
  30. Cotter TG, Lennon SV, Glynn JG, Martin SJ (1990) Cell death via apoptosis and its relationship to growth, development and differentiation of both tumour and normal cells. Anticancer Res 10: 1153–1160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cox MM (1993) Relating biochemistry to biology: how the recombinational repair function of RecA protein is manifested in its molecular properties. Bioessays 15: 617–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cutler RG (1972) Transcription of reiterated DNA sequence classes throughout the life span of the mouse. Adv Gerontol Res 4: 219–321Google Scholar
  33. Cutler RG (1976) Nature of aging and life maintenance processes. Interdiscip Topics Gerontol 9: 83–133Google Scholar
  34. Demple B, Amabile-Cuevas CF (1991) Redox redux: the control of oxidative stress responses. Cell 67: 837–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dimri GP, Lee X, Basile G, Acosta M, Scott G, Roskelley C, Medrano EE, Linskens M, Rubelj I, Pereira-Smith O, Peacocke M, Campisi J (1995) A biomarker that identifies senescent human cells in culture and in aging skin in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 9363–9367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Doolittle RF, Anderson KL, Feng DF (1989) Estimating the prokaryote-eukaryote divergence time from protein sequences. In: Fernholm B, Bremer K, Jornvall H (eds) The hierarchy of life, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 73–85Google Scholar
  37. Dougherty EC (1955) Comparative evolution and the origin of sexuality. Syst Zool 4: 145–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dudas SP, Arking R (1995) A coordinate upregulation of antioxidant gene activities is associated with the delayed onset of senescence in a long-lived strain of Drosophila. J Gerontol Biol Sci 50A: B117 - B127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Edington KG, Loughran OP, Berry IJ, Parkinson EK (1995) Cellular immortality: a late event in the progression of human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck associated with p53 alteration and a high frequency of allele loss. Mol Carcinog 13: 254–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. El-Deiry WS, Tokino T, Velculescu VE, Levy DB, Parsons R, Trent JM, Lin D, Mercer WE, Kinsler KW, Vogelstein B (1993) WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumour suppression. Cell 75: 817–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fraga CG, Shigenaga MK, Park JW, Degan P, Ames BN (1990) Oxidative damage to DNA during aging: 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in rat organ DNA and urine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 4533–4537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gafni A (1990) Age-related effects in enzyme metabolism and catalysis. Rev Biol Res Aging 4: 315–336Google Scholar
  43. Garewal H, Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Sampliner R, Payne C (1996) Reduced bile-acid induced apoptosis in „normal“ colorectal mucosa: a potential biomarker for cancer risk. Cancer Res 56: 1480–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilley D, Blackburn EH (1994) Lack of telomere shortening during senescence in Paramecium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 1955–1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gire V, Wynford-Thomas D (1998) Reinitiation of DNA synthesis and cell division in senescent human fibroblasts by microinjection of anti-p53 antibodies. Mol Cell Biol 18: 1611–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Govers MJAP, Termont DSML, Lapre JA, Kleibeuker JH, Vonk RJ, Van der Meer R (1996)Google Scholar
  47. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans. Cancer Res 56:3270–3275Google Scholar
  48. Gupta RC, Bazemore LR, Golub EI, Radding CM (1997) Activities of human recombination protein Rad51. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 463–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hanawalt C (1994) Transcription-coupled repair and human disease. Science 266: 1957–1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hara E, Smith R, Parry D, Tahara H, Stone S, Peters G (1996) Regulation of p16c°1(N2 expression and its implications for cell immortalization and senescence. Mol Cell Biol 16: 859–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harper JL, White J (1974) The demography of plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 5: 419–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris PV, Mazina OM, Leonhardt EA, Case RB, Boyd JB, Burtis KC (1996) Molecular cloning of a gene involved in DNA cross-link repair with homology to prokaryotic DNA polymerase I genes. Mol Cell Biol 16: 5764–5771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Harrison DE (1979) Proliferative capacity of erythropoietic stem cell lines and aging: an overview. Mech Ageing Dev 9: 409–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hart RW, Setlow RB (1974) Correlation between deoxyribonucleic acid excision-repair and life span in a number of mammalian species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 2169–2173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hartl DL, Jones EW (1998) Genetics: principles and analysis. Sudbury, MA, USA Hay-flick L (1965) The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 37: 614–636Google Scholar
  56. Henle ES, Linn S (1997) Formation, prevention, and repair of DNA damage by iron/hydrogen peroxide. J Biol Chem 272: 19095–19098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Higami Y, Shimokawa I, OkimotoT, Ikeda T (1994) An age-related increase in the basal level of DNA damage and DNA vulnerability to oxygen radicals in the individual hepatocytes of male F344 rats. Mutat Res 316: 59–67Google Scholar
  58. Holmes GE, Holmes NR (1986) Accumulation of DNA damages in aging Paramecium tetraurelia. Mol Gen Genet 204: 108–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holmes GE, Bernstein C, Bernstein H (1992) Oxidative and other DNA damages as the basis of aging: a review. Mutat Res 275: 305–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jackson AL, Loeb LA (1998) The mutation rate and cancer. Genetics 148: 1483–1490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jansen-Durr P (1998) The making and the breaking of senescence: changes of gene expression during cellular aging and immortilalization. Exp Gerontol 33: 291–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kunz BA, Ramachandran K, Vonarx EJ (1998) DNA sequence analysis of spontaneous mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 148: 1491–1505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lansdorp PM (1997) Lessons from mice without telomerase. J Cell Biol 139: 309–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lehmann AR (1998) Dual functions of DNA repair genes: molecular, cellular, and clinical implications. BioEssays 20: 146–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lindahl T (1993) Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA. Nature 362: 709–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lithgow GJ, Kirkwood TBL (1996) Mechanisms and evolution of aging. Science 273: 80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Macieira-Coelho A (1993) Contributions made by the studies of cells in vitro for understanding of the mechanisms of aging. Exp Gerontol 28: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Macieira-Coelho A (1995) Chaos in DNA partition during the last mitoses of the proliferative life span of human fibroblasts. FEBS Lett 358: 126–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Magana-Schwencke N, Henriques JAP, Chanet R, Moustacchi E (1982) The fate of 8methoxypsoralen photo-induced crosslinks in nuclear and mitochondrial yeast DNA: Comparison of wild-type and repair deficient strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1722–1726Google Scholar
  70. Mandavilli BS, Rao KS (1996) Accumulation of DNA damage in aging neurons occurs through a mechanism other than apoptosis. J Neurochem 67: 1559–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Massie HR, Samis HV, Baird MB (1972) The kinetics of degradation of DNA and RNA by H2O2. Biochim Biophys Acta 272: 539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Masson M, Niedergang C, Schreiber V, Muller S, Menissier-deMurcia J, DeMurcia G (1998) XRCC1 is specifically associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and negatively regulates its activity following DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol 18: 3563–3571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mazars GR, Jat PS (1997) Expression of p24, a novel p2lwaflic`P`isa’’ related protein, correlates with measurement of the finite proliferative potential of rodent embryo fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 151–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meyerson M, Counter CM, Eaton EN, Ellisen LW, Steiner P, Caddie SD, Ziaugra L, Beijersbergen RL, Davidoff MJ, Liu Q, Bacchetti S, Haber DA, Weinberg RA (1997) hEST2, the putative human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, is up-regulated in tumor cells during immortalization. Cell 90: 785–795Google Scholar
  75. Mori M, Tanaka A, Sato N (1986) Hematopoietic stem cells in elderly people. Mech Ageing Dev 37: 41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Morita T, Yoshimura Y, Yamamoto A, Murata K, Mori M, Yamamoto H, Matsushiro A (1993) A mouse homolog of the Escherichia coli recA and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD51 genes. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 90: 6577–6580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Noda A, Ning Y, Venable SF, Pereira-Smith OM, Smith JR (1994) Cloning of senescent cell- derived inhibitors of DNA synthesis using an expression screen. Exp Cell Res 211: 90–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ogawa T, Yu X, Shinohara A, Egelman EH (1993) Similarity of the yeast RAD51 filament to the bacterial RecA filament. Science 259: 1896–1899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Orr WC, Sohal RS (1994) Extension of life span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 263: 1128–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Osborne DJ (1985) Annual plants. Interdiscip Top Gerontol 21: 247–262Google Scholar
  81. Pacifici RE, Davies KJA (1991) Protein, lipid and DNA repair systems in oxidative stress: the free radical theory of aging revisited. Gerontology 37: 166–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pandolfi PP, Sonati F, Rivi R, Mason P, Grosveld F, Luzzatto L (1995) Targeted disruption of the housekeeping gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD): G6PD is dispendable for pentose synthesis but essential for defense against oxidative stress. EMBO J 14: 5209–5215Google Scholar
  83. Park MS (1995) Expression of human RAD52 confers resistance to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 270: 15467–15470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Parkes TL, Elia AJ, Dickenson D, Hilliker AJ, Phillips JB, Boulianne GL (1998) Extension of Drosophila lifespan by overexpression of human DOD1 in motor neurons. Nature Genetics 19: 171–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Payne CM, Bernstein C, Bernstein H (1995a) Apoptosis overview emphasizing the role of oxidative stress, DNA damage and signal transduction pathways. Leukemia and Lymphoma 19: 43–93Google Scholar
  86. Payne CM, Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Garewal H (1995b) Role of apoptosis in biology and pathology: Resistance to apoptosis in colon carcinogenesis. Ultrastruct Pathol 19: 221–248Google Scholar
  87. Payne CM, Crowley C, Washo-Stultz D, Briehl M, Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Beard S, Holubec H, Warneke J (1998) The stress-response proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and NF-xB protect against bile salt-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 5: 623–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rampino N, Yamamoto H, Ionov Y, Li Y, Sawai H., Reed JC, Perucho M (1997) Somatic frame-shift mutations in the BAX gene in colon cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype. Science 275: 967–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Resnick MA, Martin P (1976) The repair of double-strand breaks in the nuclear DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its genetic control. Mol Gen Genet 143: 119–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rotman G, Shiloh Y (1997) Ataxia-telangiectasia: is ATM a sensor of oxidative damage and stress? BioEssays 19: 911–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sancar A (1994) Mechanisms of DNA excision repair. Science 266: 1954–1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Satoh MS, Jones CJ, Wood RD, Lindahl T (1993) DNA excision-repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum prevents removal of a class of oxygen free radical-induced base lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 6335–6339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schulze-Osthoff K, Bauer MKA, Vogt M, Wesselborg S (1997) Oxidative stress and signal transduction. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 67: 336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sherr CJ, Roberts JM (1995) Inhibitors of mammalian G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Genes Dev 9: 1149–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shinohara A, Ogawa H, MatsudaY, Ushio N, Ikeo K, Ogawa T (1993) Cloning of human, mouseand fission yeast recombination genes homologous to RAD51 and recA. Nat Genet 4: 239–243Google Scholar
  96. Sladek FM, Munn MM, Rupp WD, Howard-Flanders P (1989) In vitro repair of psoralen-DNA cross-links by RecA, UvrABC, and the 5’-exonuclease of DNA polymerase I. J Biol Chem 264: 6755–6765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith-Sonneborn J (1979) DNA repair and longevity assurance in Paramecium tetraurelia. Science 203: 1115–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sohal RS, Weindurch R (1996) Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging. Science 273: 59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sohal RS, Agarwal A, Agarwal S, Orr WC (1995) Simultaneous overexpression of copper and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase and catalase retards age-related oxidative damage and increases metabolic potential in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem 270: 15671–15674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stadler J, Stern HS, Yeung KS, McGuire V, Furrer R, Marcon N, Bruce WR (1988) Effect of high fat consumption on cell proliferation activity of colorectal mucosa and on soluble fecal bile acids. Gut 29: 1326–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stahl FW (1979) Genetic recombination: thinking about it in phage and fungi. Freeman, San Francisco Stein GH, Beeson M, Gordon L (1990) Failure to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma gene product in senescent human fibroblasts. Science 249: 666–669Google Scholar
  102. Story RM, Bishop DK, Kleckner N, Steitz TA (1993) Structural relationship of bacterial RecA proteins to recombination proteins from bacteriophage T4 and yeast. Science 259: 1892–1896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sung P (1994) Catalysis of ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange by yeast RAD51 protein. Science 265: 1241–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Terasawa M, Shinohara A, Hotta Y, Ogawa H, Ogawa T (1995) Localization of RecA-like recom-bination protein on chromosomes of the lily at various meiotic stages. Genes Dev 9: 925–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wakayama T, Perry ACF, Zucotti M, Johnson KR, Yanagimachi R (1998) Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 394: 369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang L, Patel U, Ghosh L, Banerjee S (1992) DNA polymerase 13 mutations in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 52: 4824–4827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Weinberg RA (1995) The retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle control. Cell 81: 323–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Weirich-Schwaiger H, Weirich HG, Gruber B, Schweiger M, Hirsch-Kauffmann M (1994) Correlation between senescence and DNA repair in cells from young and old individuals and in premature aging syndromes. Mutat Res 316: 37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. White E (1996) Life, death, and the pursuit of apoptosis. Genes Dev 10: 1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KHS (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385: 810–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wynford-Thomas D (1996) p53: guardian of cellular senescence. J Pathol 180:118–121Google Scholar
  112. Yaagoubi AE, Mariethoz E, Jacquier-Sarlin MR, Polla BS (1998) Redox regulation of heat shock protein expression and protective effects against oxidative stress. In: Montagnier L, Olivier R, Pasqwer C (eds) Oxidative stress in cancer, AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 113–126Google Scholar
  113. Zglinicki TV, Saretzki G, Docke W, Lotze C (1995) Mild hyperoxia shortens telomeres and inhibits proliferation of fibroblasts: a model for senescence? Exp Cell Res 220: 186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Bernstein
    • 1
  • H. Bernstein
    • 1
  • C. Payne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of MedicineUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations