Xenoestrogens as Endocrine Disrupters

  • Nira Ben-Jonathan
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


Estrogens are steroid hormones which are produced by the female gonads and have widespread effects throughout the body. Males also produce small amounts of estrogens by conversion (aromatization) of the male sex hormone testosterone and are sensitive to the estrogenic actions. The primary organs that are targeted by estrogens are components of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis and include the hypothalamus (ventral part of the midbrain), pituitary gland (the master endocrine gland), and the reproductive tract, uterus and vagina in females and prostate in the male (Fig. 4.1). Other tissues, including the mammary glands, cardiovascular system, bone and skin, are also responsive to estrogens, underscoring the profound capability of these compounds to influence most bodily functions.


Estrogenic Activity Sprague Dawley Endocrine Disrupter Estrogenic Compound Estrogen Response Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashby, J., H. Tinwell. Environ. Health Perspect. 106: 719 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, A., D. Roy. Environ. Mol.Mutagen 26: 60 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beato, M., J. Klug. Hum.Reprod.Update 6: 225 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben-Jonathan,N. In: H. Imura ed., The Pituitary Gland. Raven Press, New York, p.261 (1994)Google Scholar
  5. Ben-Jonathan, N., R. Steinmetz. Trend.Endocrinol.Metab. 9: 124 (1998) 114Google Scholar
  6. Bradlow, H. L., D. L. Davis, G. Lin, D. Sepkovic, R. Tiwari. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 147 (1995)Google Scholar
  7. Brotons, J. A., M. F. Olea-Serrano, M. Villalobos, V. Pedraza, N. Olea. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 608 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burgett, R. A., P. A. Garns, N. Ben-Jonathan. Brain Res. 531: 143 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cagen, S. Z., J. M. Waechter, Jr., S. S. Dimond, W. J. Breslin, J. H. Butala, F. W. Jekat, R. L. Joiner, R. N. Shiotsuka, G. E. Veenstra, L. R. Harris. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 30:130 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. Chang, W. Y., G. S. Prins. Prostate 40: 115 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colborn, T. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 135 (1995)Google Scholar
  12. Crain, D. A., L. J. Guillette. Jr. Anim Reprod.Sci. 53: 77 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daston, G. P., J. W. Gooch, W. J. Breslin, D. L. Shuey, A. I. Nikiforov, T. A. Fico, J. W. Gorsuch. Reprod.Toxicol. 11: 465 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis, S. R., F. S. Dalais, E. R. Simpson, A. L. Murkies. Rec. Prog.Horm.Res. 54: 185 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. Dechering, K., C. Boersma, S. Mosselman. Curr.Med. Chem. 7:561 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. Elit, L. Can.Fam.Physician 46: 887 (2000)Google Scholar
  17. Eskenazi, B., M. L. Warner. Obstet.Gynecol.Clin. N. Am. 24: 235 (1997)Google Scholar
  18. Feldman, D., L. Tokes, P. A. Stathis, S. C. Miller, W. Kurz, D. Harvey. Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci. USA 81: 4722 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Freedman, L. P., B. F. Luisi. J.Cell Biochem. 51: 140 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gaido, K. W., L. S. Leonard, S. Lovell, J. C. Gould, D. Babai, C. J. Portier, D. P. McDonnell. Toxicol.Appl.Pharm. 143: 205 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gallo, M. A., D. Kaufman. Semin.Oncol. 24: S1 (1997)Google Scholar
  22. Gladek, A., J. G. Liehr. Carcinogenesis 12: 773 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gould, J. C., L. S. Leonard, S. C. Maness, B. L. Wagner, K. Conner, T. Zacharewski, S. Safe, D. P. McDonnell, K. W. Gaido. Mol.Cell Endocrinol. 142: 203 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta, C. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med. 224: 61 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gustafsson, J. A.. Semin.Perinatol.. 24: 66 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. Hall, J. M., D. P. McDonnell. Endocrinology 140: 5566 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hopp, T. A., S. A. Fuqua. J.Mammary Gland Biol.Neoplasia. 3: 73 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Horwitz, K. B., T. A. Jackson, D. L. Bain, J. K. Richer, G. S. Takimoto, L. Tung. Mol.Endocrinol. 10: 1167 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Howdeshell, K. L., A. K. Hotchkiss, K. A. Thayer, J. G. Vandenbergh, F. S. vorn Saal. Nature 401: 763 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Howe, S. R., L. Borodinsky. Food Addit.Contam. 15: 370 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jordan, V. C., M. Morrow. Endocr.Rev. 20: 253 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katzenellenbogen, J. A., B. W. O’Malley, B. S. Katzenellenbogen. Mol.Endocrinol. 10: 119 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khurana, S., S. Ranmal, N. Ben-Jonathan. Endocrinology 141:4512 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klinge, C. M. Steroids 65: 227 (2000)Google Scholar
  35. Krishnan, A. V., P. Stathis, S. Permuth, L. Tokes, D. Feldman. Endocrinology 132: 2279 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuiper, G. G. J. M., B. Carlsson, K. Grandien, E. Enmark, J. Haggblad, S. Nilsson, J.-A. Gustafsson. Endocrinology 138: 863 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Long, X., R. Steinmetz, N. Ben-Jonathan, A. Caperell-Grant, P. C. Young, K. P. Nephew, R. M. Bigsby. Environ.Health Perspect. 108: 243 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lopez-Otin, C., E. P. Diamandis. Endocr.Rev. 19: 365 (1998)Google Scholar
  39. Maalouf, G. J., W. Xu, T. F. Smith, S. C. Mohr. J.Biomol.Struct.Dyn. 15:841(1998) Marselos, M., L. Tomatis. Eur.J.Cancer 28A: 1182 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marselos, M., L. Tomatis. Eur.J.Cancer. 29A: 149 (1993)Google Scholar
  41. Mazur, W. Baillieres Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 12: 729 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Milligan, S. R., A. V. Balasubramanian, J. C. Kalita. Environ.Health Perspect. 106: 23 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mitchner, N. A., C. Garlick, N. Ben-Jonathan. Endocrinology 139:3976 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mountfort, K. A., J. Kelly, S. M. Jickells, L. Castle. Food Addit.Contam. 14: 737 (1997)Google Scholar
  45. Nagel, S. C., F. S. vom Saal, W. V. Welshons. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 69: 343 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nathan, L., G. Chaudhuri. Semin.Reprod.Endocrinol. 16: 309 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Newbold, R. Environ.Health Perspect. 103 (suppl 7): 83 (1995)Google Scholar
  48. Nilsson, R. Toxicol.Pathol. 28: 420 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Noller, K. L., C. R. Fish. Med. Clin. of N. Am.. 58: 793 (1974)Google Scholar
  50. Nowak, R. A. Baillieres Best Pract.Res.Clin.Obstet.Gynaecol. 13: 223 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Olea, N., R. Pulgar, P. Perez, F. Olea-Serrano, A. Rivas, A. Novillo-Fertrell, V. Pedraza, A. M. Soto, C. Sonnenschein. Environ.Health Perspect. 104: 298 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pennie, W. D., T. C. Aldridge, A. N. Brooks. J.Endocrinol. 158: R11 — R14 (1998)Google Scholar
  53. Petersen, D. N., G. T. Tkalcevic, P. H. Koza-Taylor, T. G. Turi, T. A. Brown. Endocrinology 139: 1082 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Routledge, E. J., J. P. Sumpter. J.Biol.Chem. 272: 3280 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roy, D., M. Palangat, C. W. Chen, R. D. Thomas, J. Colerangle, A. Atkinson, Z. J. Yan. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health 50: 1 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Safe, S. H., T. Zacharewski. Prog.Clin.Biol.Res. 396: 133 (1997)Google Scholar
  57. Savu, L., E. Nunez, M. F. Jayle. Steroids 25: 717 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schafer, T. E., C. A. Lapp, C. M. Hanes, J. B. Lewis, J. C. Wataha, G. S. Schuster. J.Biomed.Mater.Res. 45: 192 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sheeler, C. Q., M. W. Dudley, S. A. Khan. Environ.Health Perspect. 108: 97 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shiau, A. K., D. Barstad, P. M. Loria, L. Cheng, P. J. Kushner, D. A. Agard, G. L. Greene. Cell 95: 927 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Soderholm, K. J., A. Mariotti. J.Am.Dent.Assoc. 130: 201 (1999)Google Scholar
  62. Sonnenschein, C., A. M. Soto. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 65: 143 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spearow, J. L., P. Doemeny, R. Sera, R. Leffler, M. Barkley. Science 285: 1259 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spivack, J., T. K. Leib, J. H. Lobos. J.Biol.Chem. 269: 7323 (1994)Google Scholar
  65. Stancel, G. M., H. L. Boettger-Tong, C. Chiappetta, S. M. Hyder, J. L. Kirkland, L. Murthy, D. S. Loose-Mitchell. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 29 (1995)Google Scholar
  66. Staples, C. A., P. B. Dorn, G. M. Klecka, S. T. O’Block, L. R. Harris. Chemosphere 36: 2149 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Steinmetz, R., N. G. Brown, D. L. Allen, R. M. Bigsby, N. Ben Jonathan. Endocrinology 138: 1780 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Steinmetz, R., N. A. Mitchner, A. Grant, D. L. Allen, R. M. Bigsby, N. Ben Jonathan. Endocrinology 139: 2741 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Steinmetz, R., P. C. M. Young, A. Caperell-Grant, E. A. Gize, B. V. Madhukar, N. Ben-Jonathan. R. M. Bigsby. Cancer Res. 56: 5403 (1996)Google Scholar
  70. Sumpter, J. P., S. Jobling. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 173 (1995)Google Scholar
  71. Turner, K. J., R. M. Sharpe. Rev.Reprod. 2: 69 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wijayaratne, A. L., S. C. Nagel, L. A. Paige, D. J. Christensen, J. D. Norris, D. M. Fowlkes, D. P. McDonnell. Endocrinology. 140: 5828 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wolff, M. S., P. G. Toniolo. Environ.Health Perspect. 103: 141 (1995)Google Scholar
  74. Yager, J. D., J. G. Liehr. Ann.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 36: 203 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yang, N. N., M. Venugopalan, S. Hardikar, A. Glasebrook. Science 273: 1222 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nira Ben-Jonathan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations