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Xenoestrogens as Endocrine Disrupters

  • Nira Ben-Jonathan
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Abstract

Estrogens are steroid hormones which are produced by the female gonads and have widespread effects throughout the body. Males also produce small amounts of estrogens by conversion (aromatization) of the male sex hormone testosterone and are sensitive to the estrogenic actions. The primary organs that are targeted by estrogens are components of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis and include the hypothalamus (ventral part of the midbrain), pituitary gland (the master endocrine gland), and the reproductive tract, uterus and vagina in females and prostate in the male (Fig. 4.1). Other tissues, including the mammary glands, cardiovascular system, bone and skin, are also responsive to estrogens, underscoring the profound capability of these compounds to influence most bodily functions.

Keywords

Estrogenic Activity Sprague Dawley Endocrine Disrupter Estrogenic Compound Estrogen Response Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

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  • Nira Ben-Jonathan

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