Behavioural and Physiological Reactions to Environmental Variation in Bird Migration: a Review

  • Lukas Jenni
  • Michael Schaub
Conference paper

Abstract

Many features of the migration of passerine birds are endogenously programmed and have a strong genetic basis. At least in inexperienced migrants, the general seasonal course of migration is endogenously controlled, such as the onset, the temporal pattern, the direction of migration and the seasonal pattern of energy stores. This leads to the conclusion that an endogenous spatiotemporal migration programme guides inexperienced migrants from their place of birth to their first winter quarters (summarized in Berthold 1996).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aborn DA, Moore FR (1997) Pattern of movement by summer tanagers (Piranga rubra) during migratory stopover: a telemetry study. Behaviour 134: 1077–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Åkesson S, Hedenström A (2000) Wind selectivity of migratory flight departures in birds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 47: 140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akesson S, Alerstam T, Hedenström A (1996a) Flight initiation of nocturnal passerine migrants in relation to celestial orientation conditions at twilight. J Avian Biol 27: 95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Åkesson S, Karlsson L, Walinder G, Alerstam T (1996b) Bimodal orientation and the occurrence of temporary reverse bird migration during autumn in south Scandinavia. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38: 293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akesson S, Walinder G, Karlsson L, Ehnbom S (2001) Reed warbler orientation: initiation of nocturnal migratory flights in relation to visibility of celestial cues at dusk. Anim Behav 61: 181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alerstam T, Lindström Å (1990) Optimal bird migration: the relative importance of time, energy, and safety. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 331–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bairlein F (1983) Habitat selection and associations of species in European passerine birds during southward, post-breeding migrations. Ornis Scand 14: 239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bairlein F (1985a) Body weights and fat deposition of Palaearctic passerine migrants in the central Sahara. Oecologia 66: 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bairlein F (1985b) Efficiency of food utilization during fat deposition in the long-distance migratory garden warbler (Sylvia borin). Oecologia 68: 118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bairlein F (1986) Spontaneous, approximately semimonthly rhythmic variations of body weight in the migratory garden warbler (Sylvia borin Boddaert). J Comp Physiol B 156: 859–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bairlein F (2000) Photoperiode and Nahrungsangebot beeinflussen zugzeitliche Fettdeposition. Jahresber Inst Vogelforsch 4: 5Google Scholar
  12. Bairlein F, Gwinner E (1994) Nutritional mechanisms and temporal control of migratory energy accumulation in birds. Annu Rev Nutr 14: 187–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Battley PF, Piersma T, Dietz MW, Tang S, Dekinga A, Hulsman K (2000) Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight. Proc R Soc Lond B 267: 191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bautista LM, Tinbergen J, Wiersma P, Kacelnik A (1998) Optimal foraging and beyond: how starlings cope with changes in food availability. Am Nat 152: 543–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beck W, Wiltschko W (1988) Magnetic factors control the migratory direction of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). In: Ouellet H (ed) Proc 19th Int Ornithol Congr, Ottawa. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa, pp 1955–1962Google Scholar
  16. Berthold P (1996) Control of bird migration. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Bibby CJ, Green RE (1980) Foraging behaviour of migrant pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, on temporary territories. J Anim Ecol 49: 507–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bibby CJ, Green RE (1981) Autumn migration strategies of reed and sedge warblers. Ornis Scand 12: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Biebach H (1985) Sahara stopover in migratory flycatchers: fat and food affect the time program. Experientia 41: 695–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Biebach H (1998) Phenotypic organ flexibility in garden warblers Sylvia borin during long-distance migration. J Avian Biol 29: 529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biebach H (1990) Strategies of trans-Sahara migrants. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 352–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Biebach H, Friedrich W, Heine G (1986) Interaction of bodymass, fat, foraging and stopover period in trans-sahara migrating passerine birds. Oecologia 69: 370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bolshakov CV, Bulyuk VN (1999) Time of nocturnal flight initiation (take-off activity) in the European robin, Erithacus rubecula, during spring migration: direct observation between sunset and sunrise. Avian Ecol Behav 2: 51–74Google Scholar
  24. Bolshakov CV, Bulyuk VN (2001) New comprehensive systematic data concerning the time of nocturnal departure in some passerine migrants in autumn. Ring 23: 131–137Google Scholar
  25. Bruderer B (1997) The study of bird migration by radar. Part 2: major achievements. Naturwissenschaften 84: 45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bruderer B, Jenni L (1990) Migration across the Alps. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bruderer B, Liechti F (1998a) Étude des migrations transméditerranéennes au moyen du radar. Directions de la migration nocturne en automne près de Malaga et à Majorque. Nos Oiseaux Suppl 2: 51–60Google Scholar
  28. Bruderer B, Liechti F (1998b) Flight behaviour of nocturnally migrating birds in coastal areas — crossing or coasting. J Avian Biol 29: 499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bruderer B, Liechti F (1999) Bird migration across the Mediterranean. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH (eds) Proc 22nd Int Ornithol Congr, Durban, BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, pp 1983–1999Google Scholar
  30. Bruderer B, Underhill LG, Liechti F (1995) Altitude choice by night migrants in a desert area predicted by meteorological factors. Ibis 137: 44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruderer B, Liechti F, Kestenholz M, Peter D, Spaar R, Stark H, Steuri T (2000) Vogelzugstudien mit Zielfolgeradar im Süden Israels. Ornithol Beob 97: 21–44Google Scholar
  32. Butler PJ, Bishop CM (2000) Flight. In: Whittow GC (ed) Sturkie’s avian physiology, 5th edn. Academic Press, London, pp 391–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Carmi N, Pinshow B, Porter WP, Jaeger J (1992) Water and energy limitations on flight duration in small migrating birds. Auk 109: 268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carpenter FL, Hixon MA, Temeles EJ, Russell RW, Paton DC (1993) Exploitative compensation by subordinate age-sex classes of migrant rufous hummingbirds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 33: 305–312Google Scholar
  35. Cherry JD (1982) Fat deposition and length of stopover of migrant white-crowned sparrows. Auk 99: 725–732Google Scholar
  36. Cimprich DA, Moore F (1999) Energetic constraints and predation pressure during stopover. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH (eds) Proc 22nd Int Ornithol Congr, Durban, BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, pp 834–846Google Scholar
  37. Cochran WW, Kjos CG (1985) Wind drift and migration of thrushes: a telemetry study. Ill Nat Hist Sury Bull 33: 297–330Google Scholar
  38. Dänhardt J, Lindström Å (2001) Optimal departure decision of songbirds from an experimental stopover site and the significance of weather. Anim Behav 62: 235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DeWolfe BB, West GC, Peyton LJ (1973) The spring migration of Gambel’s sparrows through southern Yukon territory. Condor 75: 43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dierschke V, Delingat J (2001) Stopover behaviour and departure decision of northern wheat-ears, Oenanthe oenanthe, with different distances to migratory destination. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50: 535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ellegren H (1991) Stopover ecology of autumn migrating bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, in relation to age and sex. Omis Scand 22: 340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellegren H (1993) Speed of migration and migratory flight lengths of passerine birds ringed during autumn migration in Sweden. Ornis Scand 24: 220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Erni B, Liechti F, Underhill LG, Bruderer B (2002) Wind and rain govern the intensity of nocturnal bird migration in central Europe — a log-linear regression analysis. Ardea 90: 155–166Google Scholar
  44. Evans PR, Davidson NC, Piersma T, Pienkowski MW (1991) Implications of habitat loss at migration staging posts for shorebird populations. Acta XX Congr Int Ornithol, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 2228–2235Google Scholar
  45. Farmer AH, Wiens JA (1999) Models and reality: time-energy trade-offs in pectoral sandpiper ( Calidris melanotos) migration. Ecology 80: 2566–2580Google Scholar
  46. Fortin D, Liechti F, Bruderer B (1999) Variation in the nocturnal flight behaviour of migratory birds along the northwest coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Ibis 141: 480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fransson T (1995) Timing and speed of migration in North and West European populations of Sylvia warblers. J Avian Biol 26: 39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fransson T (1998) A feeding experiment on migratory fuelling in whitethroats (Sylvia communis). Anim Behav 55: 153–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fransson T, Weber TP (1997) Migratory fuelling in blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) under perceived risk of predation. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41: 75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fransson T, Jakobsson S, Johansson P, Kullberg C, Lind J, Vallin A (2001) Magnetic cues trigger extensive refuelling. Nature 414: 35–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Graber JW, Graber RR (1983) Feeding rates of warblers in spring. Condor 85: 139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gwinner E (1990) Circannual rhythms in bird migration: control of temporal patterns and interactions with photoperiod. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gwinner E (1996) Circadian and circannual programmes in avian migration. J Exp Biol 199: 39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gwinner E, Wiltschko W (1978) Endogenously controlled changes in migratory direction of the garden warbler, Sylvia borin. J Comp Physiol 125: 267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gwinner E, Biebach H, Kries I (1985) Food availability affects migratory restlessness in caged garden warblers ( Sylvia borin ). Naturwissenschaften 72: 51–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hebrard JJ (1971) The nightly initiation of passerine migration in spring: a direct visual study. Ibis 113: 8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Helbig AJ, Berthold P, Wiltschko W (1989) Migratory orientation of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla): population-specific shifts of direction during the autumn. Ethology 82: 307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herremans M (1990) Can night migrants use interspecific song recognition to assess habitat? Gerfaut 80: 141–148Google Scholar
  59. Hume ID, Biebach H (1996) Digestive tract function in the long-distance migratory garden warbler, Sylvia borin. J Comp Physiol B 166: 388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jenni L (1996) Habitatwahl nachtziehender Kleinvögel bei Bodennebel. J Ornithol 137: 425–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jenni L, Jenni-Eiermann S (1998) Fuel supply and metabolic constraints in migrating birds. J Avian Biol 29: 521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jenni L, Jenni-Eiermann S (1999) Fat and protein utilization during migratory flight. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH (eds) Proc 22nd Int Ornithol Congr, Durban, BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, pp 1437–1449Google Scholar
  63. Jenni L, Naef-Daenzer B (1986) Vergleich der Fanghäufigkeiten von Zugvögeln auf dem Alpenpass Col de Bretolet mit Brutbeständen im Herkunftsgebiet. Ornithol Beob 83: 95–110Google Scholar
  64. Jenni L, Widmer F (1996) Habitatnutzung von Kleinvögeln in der Herbstzugzeit am Neuen-burgersee. Ornithol Beob 93: 221–248Google Scholar
  65. Jenni L, Jenni-Eiermann S, Spina F, Schwabl H (2000) Regulation of protein breakdown and adrenocortical response to stress in birds during migratory flight. Am J Physiol 278:R1182 - R1189Google Scholar
  66. Jenni-Eiermann S, Jenni L (1994) Plasma metabolite levels predict individual body-mass changes in a small long-distance migrant, the garden warbler. Auk 111: 888–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jenni-Eiermann S, Jenni L (1999) Habitat utilisation and energy storage in passerine birds during migratory stopover. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH (eds) Proc 22nd Int Ornithol Congr, Durban, BirdLife South Africa, Durban, pp 803–818Google Scholar
  68. Jenni-Eiermann S, Jenni L (2001) Postexercise ketosis in night-migrating passerine birds. Physiol Biochem Zool 74: 90–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klaassen M (1995) Water and energy limitations on flight range. Auk 112: 260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klaassen M (1996) Metabolic constraints on long-distance migration in birds. J Exp Biol 199: 57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Klaassen M, Biebach H (1994) Energetics of fattening and starvation in the long-distance migratory garden warbler, Sylvia borin, during the migratory phase. J Comp Physiol B 164: 362–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Klaassen M, Lindström >Å (1996) Departure fuel loads in time-minimizing migrating birds can be explained by the energy costs of being heavy. J Theor Biol 183: 29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klaassen M, Kvist A, Lindström A (1999) How body water and fuel stores affect long distance flight in migrating birds. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH (eds) Proc 22nd Int Ornithol Congr, Durban, BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, pp 1450–1467Google Scholar
  74. Kuenzi AY, Moore FR, Simons TR (1991) Stopover of Neotropical landbird migrants on East Ship Island following trans-Gulf migration. Condor 93: 869–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kullberg C, Jakobsson S, Fransson T (2000) High migratory fuel loads impair predator evasion in sedge warblers. Auk 117: 1034–1038Google Scholar
  76. Landys MM, Piersma T, Visser GH, Jukema J, Wijker A (2000) Water balance during real and simulated long-distance migratory flight in the bar-tailed godwit. Condor 102: 645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liechti F (1993) Nächtlicher Vogelzug im Herbst fiber Süddeutschland: Winddrift and Kompensation. J Ornithol 134: 373–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liechti F (1995) Modelling optimal heading and airspeed of migrating birds in relation to energy expenditure and wind influence. J Avian Biol 26: 330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liechti F, Bruderer B (1998) The relevance of wind for optimal migration theory. J Avian Biol 29: 561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Liechti F, Schaller E (1999) The use of low-level jets by migrating birds. Naturwissenschaften 86: 549–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Liechti F, Hedenström A, Alerstam T (1994) Effects of sidewinds on optimal flight speed of birds. J Theor Biol 170: 219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Liechti F, Klaassen M, Bruderer B (2000) Predicting migratory flight altitudes by physiological migration models. Auk 117: 205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lind J, Fransson T, Jakobsson S, Kullberg C (1999) Reduced take-off ability in robins ( Erithacus rubecula) due to migratory fuel load. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46: 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lindström Å (1990) The role of predation risk in stopover habitat selection in migrating bramblings, Fringilla montifringilla. Behav Ecol 1: 102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lindström Å, Alerstam T (1992) Optimal fat loads in migrating birds: a test of the time-minimization hypothesis. Am Nat 140: 477–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lindström Å, Hasselquist D, Bensch S, Grahn M (1990) Asymmetric contests over resources for survival and migration: a field experiment with bluethroats. Anim Behav 40: 453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lindström Å, Daan S, Visser GH (1994) The conflict between moult and migratory fat deposition: a photoperiodic experiment with bluethroats. Anim Behav 48: 1173–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Loria D, Moore FR (1990) Energy demands of migration on red-eyed vireos, Vireo olivaceus. Behav Ecol 1: 24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Merom K, Yom-Tov Y, McClery R (2000) Philopatry to stopover site and body condition of transient reed warblers during autumn migration through Israel. Condor 102: 441–444Google Scholar
  90. Moore F, Aborn DA (1996) Time of departure by summer tanagers ( Piranga rubra) from a stopover site following spring trans-Gulf migration. Auk 113: 949–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Moore FR, Kerlinger P (1987) Stopover and fat deposition by North American wood-warblers ( Parulidae) following spring migration over the Gulf of Mexico. Oecologia 74: 47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Moore FR, Yong W (1991) Evidence of food-based competition among passerine migrants during stopover. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 28: 85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Morris SR, Holmes DW, Richmond ME (1996) A ten-year study of the stopover patterns of migratory passerines during fall migration on Appledore Island, Maine. Condor 98: 395–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Piersma T (1998) Phenotypic flexibility during migration: optimization of organ size contingent on the risk and rewards of fueling and flight? J Avian Biol 29: 511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Piersma T, Gill RE Jr (1998) Guts don’t fly: small digestive organs in obese bar-tailed godwits. Auk 115: 196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Piersma T, Lindström Å (1997) Rapid reversible changes in organ size as a component of adaptive behaviour. Trends Ecol Evol 12: 134–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Piersma T, Bruinzeel L, Drent R, Kersten M, van der Meer J, Wiersma P (1996) Variability in basal metabolic rate of a long-distance migrant shorebird (red knot, Calidris canutus) reflects shifts in organ sizes. Physiol Zool 69: 191–217Google Scholar
  98. Rappole JH, Warner DW (1976) Relationships between behavior, physiology and weather in avian transients at a migratory stopover site. Oecologia 26: 193–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Richardson WJ (1990) Timing of bird migration in relation to weather: updated review. In: Gwinner E (ed) Bird migration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 78–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Safriel UN, Lavee D (1988) Weight changes of cross-desert migrants at an oasis–do energetic considerations alone determine the length of stopover? Oecologia 76: 611–619Google Scholar
  101. Sandberg R, Pettersson J, Alerstam T (1988) Why do migrating robins, Erithacus rubecula, captured at two nearby stop-over sites orient differently? Anim Behav 36: 865–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schaub M, Jenni L (2000a) Body mass of six long-distance migrant passerine species along the autumn migration route. J Ornithol 141: 441–460Google Scholar
  103. Schaub M, Jenni L (2000b) Fuel deposition of three passerine bird species along the migration route. Oecologia 122: 306–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schaub M, Jenni L (2001a) Stopover durations of three warbler species along their autumn migration route. Oecologia 128: 217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schaub M, Jenni L (2001b) Variation of fuelling rates among sites, days and individuals in migrating passerine birds. Funct Ecol 15: 584–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schaub M, Schwilch R, Jenni L (1999) Does tape-luring of migrating Eurasian reed warblers increase number of recruits or capture probability? Auk 116: 1047–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schaub M, Pradel R, Jenni L, Lebreton JD (2001) Migrating birds stop over longer than usually thought: an improved capture-recapture analysis. Ecology 82: 852–859Google Scholar
  108. Schwilch R, Jenni L (2001) Low initial refueling rate at stopover sites: a methodological effect? Auk 118: 698–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schwilch R, Piersma T, Holmgren NMA, Jenni L (2002) Do migratory birds need a nap after a long non-stop flight? Ardea 90: 149–154Google Scholar
  110. Simons TR, Pearson SM, Moore F (2000) Application of spatial models to the stopover ecology of trans-Gulf migrants. Stud Avian Biol 20: 4–14Google Scholar
  111. Thorup K, Rabol J (2001) The orientation system and migration pattern of long-distance migrants: conflict between model predictions and observed patterns. J Avian Biol 32: 111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Turrian F, Jenni L (1991) Étude de trois espèces de fauvettes en période de migration postnuptiale à Verbois, Genève: évolution de la masse, offre en nourriture et régime alimentaire. Alauda 59: 73–88Google Scholar
  113. Weber TP (1999) Blissful ignorance? Departure rules for migrants in a spatially heterogeneous environment. J Theor Biol 199: 415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weber TP, Houston AI (1997a) A general model for time-minimising avian migration. J Theor Biol 185: 447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weber TP, Houston AI (1997b) Flight costs, flight range and the stopover ecology of migrating birds. J Anim Ecol 66: 297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weber TP, Alerstam T, Hedenström A (1998a) Stopover decisions under wind influence. J Avian Biol 29: 552–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Weber TP, Ens BJ, Houston AI (1998b) Optimal avian migration: a dynamic model of fuel stores and site use. Evol Ecol 12: 377–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wehner R (1998) Navigation in context: grand theories and basic mechanisms. J Avian Biol 29: 370–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yong W, Moore FR (1993) Relation between migratory activity and energetic condition among thrushes ( Turdinae) following passage across the Gulf of Mexico. Condor 95: 934–943Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukas Jenni
  • Michael Schaub
    • 1
  1. 1.Swiss Ornithological InstituteSempachSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations