Complex Systems and the Evolution of Computability

  • Klaus Mainzer


The evolution of complexity in nature and society can be understood as the evolution of computational systems. In the beginning of modern times, Leibniz already had the idea that the hierarchy of natural systems from stones and plants up to animals and humans corresponded to natural automata with increasing degrees of complexity (Sect. 5.1). The present theory of computability enables us to distinguish complexity classes of problems, meaning the order of corresponding functions describing the computational time of their algorithms or computational programs. But we can also consider the size of a computer program when defining the algorithmic complexity of symbolic patterns (Sect. 5.2).


Expert System Cellular Automaton Turing Machine Knowledge Processing Certainty Factor 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Mainzer
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie, Institut für Interdisziplinäre InformatikUniversität AugsburgAugsburgGermany

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