Chemical Bonding in Solids

  • Harald Ibach
  • Hans Lüth
Part of the Advanced Texts in Physics book series (ADTP)


Solid-state physics is the physics of that state of matter in which a large number of atoms are chemically bound to produce a dense solid aggregate. The emphasis in this statement is placed on the large number of atoms involved, since that number is of the order of 1023 cm−3. At first sight it would seem to be a hopeless task to try to apply traditional scientific methods for the description of such a vast number of atoms. However, it is exactly the large number of atoms involved that in fact makes a quantitative description possible by means of new models, applicable specifically to solids. A prerequisite, though, for the success of these models, is that the participating atoms are not simply chosen at random from the periodic table of elements; the solid must be composed of a limited number of different elements whose atoms are arranged in space with a certain order. Thus, for the solid state physicist, the showpieces are the “elementary” crystals, i.e., three-dimensional periodic arrangements of atoms of one type, or chemical compounds of two elements. An understanding of solids and of their characteristic properties thus requires that we first achieve a fundamental understanding of two particular phenomena: the first is that of the forces that hold together the atoms of a solid, in other words, the chemical bonding between atoms. The second important aspect is the structural ordering of the atoms within the solid. A consideration of these two basic questions forms the content of the first two chapters. In both cases it will only be possible to give a short introduction and for a more detailed discussion of these phenomena the reader is referred to textbooks on quantum chemistry and crystallography.


Electron Affinity Periodic Table Ionic Bonding Electronegative Atom Tetrahedral Configuration 
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Chapter 1

  1. 1.1
    L. Pauling: The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edn. ( Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY 1960 )Google Scholar
  2. 1.2
    S. Göttlicher: Acta Cryst. B 24, 122 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1.3
    Y.W. Yang, P. Coppens: Solid State Commun. 15, 1555 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 1.4
    S.P. Walch, W.A. Goddard, III: Surf. Sci. 72, 645 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Ballhausen, C. J., Gray, H.B.: Molecular Orbital Theory (Benjamin, New York 1964 )Google Scholar
  2. Cartmell, E., Fowles, G.W.A.: Valency and Molecular Structure, 2nd edn. ( Butterworths, London 1961 )Google Scholar
  3. Coulson, C.A.: Valence, 2nd edn. ( Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1961 )Google Scholar
  4. Hartmann, H.: Theorie der chemischen Bindung ( Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 1954 )zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Pauling, L.: Die Natur der chemischen Bindung ( Chemie-Verlag, Weinheim 1964 )Google Scholar
  6. Philips, J.C.: Covalent Bonding in Crystals, Molecules and Polymers ( The Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago 1969 )Google Scholar
  7. Slater, J. C.: Quantum Theory of Molecules and Solids ( McGraw-Hill, New York 1963 )zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Vinogradov, S.N., Linell, R.H.: Hydrogen Bonding ( Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York 1971 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Ibach
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hans Lüth
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Schichten und GrenzflächenForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülichGermany
  2. 2.Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische HochschuleAachenGermany

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