• Hannu Karttunen
  • Pekka Kröger
  • Heikki Oja
  • Markku Poutanen
  • Karl Johan Donner


After the demise of the Aristotelian world picture, it took hundreds of years of astronomical observations and physical theories to reach a level at which a satisfactory modern scientific picture of the physical universe could be formed. The decisive steps in the development were the clarification of the nature of the galaxies in the 1920’s and the general theory of relativity developed by Einstein in the 1910’s. Research in cosmology tries to answer questions such as: How large and how old is the Universe? How is matter distributed? How were the elements formed? What will be the future of the Universe? The central tenet of modern cosmology is the model of the expanding universe. On the basis of this model, it has been possible to approach these questions.


Black Hole Dark Matter Radio Source Deceleration Parameter Radio Galaxy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. Burnham: Burnham’s Celestial Handbook I, II, III,Dover 1966, 2nd ed. 1978.Google Scholar
  2. de Vaucouleurs et al.: Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies,University of Texas Press 1964, 2nd catalogue 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Hirshfeld, Sinnott: Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Sky Publishing 1985.Google Scholar
  4. Hoffleit: Bright Star Catalogue,Yale University Observatory 1982.Google Scholar
  5. Kholopov (ed.): Obshij katalog peremennyh zvezd,Nauka, 4th edition 1985.Google Scholar
  6. Luginbuhl, Skiff: Observing Handbook and Catalogue of Deep-sky Objects, Cambridge University Press 1989.Google Scholar
  7. Ridpath: Norton’s 2000.0,Longman 1989.Google Scholar
  8. Rükl: Atlas of the Moon,Hamlyn 1991.Google Scholar
  9. Ruprecht, Balâz, White: Catalogue of Star Clusters and Associations, Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest) 1981.Google Scholar
  10. Tirion: Sky Atlas 2000.0,Sky Publishing 1981.Google Scholar
  11. Tirion, Rappaport, Lovi: Uranometria 2000.0, Willman-Bell 1987.Google Scholar
  12. Greeley, Batson: The NASA Atlas of the Solar System, Cambridge University Press 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannu Karttunen
    • 1
  • Pekka Kröger
    • 2
  • Heikki Oja
    • 3
  • Markku Poutanen
    • 4
  • Karl Johan Donner
    • 5
  1. 1.Tuorla ObservatoryUniversity of TurkuPiikkiöFinland
  2. 2.HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Observatory and University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Finnish Geodetic InstituteMasalaFinland
  5. 5.Finnish Geodetic InstituteHelsinkiFinland

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