• Hannu Karttunen
  • Pekka Kröger
  • Heikki Oja
  • Markku Poutanen
  • Karl Johan Donner


The galaxies are the fundamental building blocks of the Universe. Some of them are very simple in structure, containing only normal stars and showing no particular individual features. There are also galaxies that are almost entirety made of neutral gas. On the other hand, others are complex systems, built up from many separate components — stars, neutral and ionized gas, dust, molecular clouds, magnetic fields, cosmic rays .... The galaxies may form small groups or large clusters in space. At the centre of many galaxies, there is a compact nucleus that may sometimes be so bright that it overwhelms all the normal radiation of the galaxy.


Radio Source Active Galactic Nucleus Rotation Curve Spiral Galaxy Surface Brightness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. Binney, Tremaine: Galactic Dynamics, Princeton University Press 1987.Google Scholar
  2. Combes, Boissé, Mazure, Blanchard: Galaxies and Cosmology, Springer 1995.Google Scholar
  3. Frank, King, Raine: Accretion Power in Astrophysics, Cambridge Astrophysics series 21, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Krolik: Active Galactic Nuclei,Princeton University Press 1999.Google Scholar
  5. Sandage: The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies,Carnegie Institution 1961.Google Scholar
  6. Sparke, Gallagher: Galaxies in the Universe, Cambridge University Press 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannu Karttunen
    • 1
  • Pekka Kröger
    • 2
  • Heikki Oja
    • 3
  • Markku Poutanen
    • 4
  • Karl Johan Donner
    • 5
  1. 1.Tuorla ObservatoryUniversity of TurkuPiikkiöFinland
  2. 2.HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Observatory and University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Finnish Geodetic InstituteMasalaFinland
  5. 5.Finnish Geodetic InstituteHelsinkiFinland

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