Steady-State Gradient-Echo Imaging

  • Marinus T. Vlaardingerbroek
  • Jacques A. den Boer


Conventional MRI, based on methods like Spin Echo (SE) or Field (Gradient) Echo, has the important drawback that the scan time is long to very long compared with time constants of cardiac, peristaltic, and respiratory motion in the patient, giving rise to artifacts in the images. This long scan time is caused by the time it takes to allow the spins after acquisition to relax back to the equilibrium situation before the next excitation pulse is applied (Chap. 2). In many cases the problems of patient motion can be circumvented by applying ECG triggering and/or respiratory motion detection, but in cases of abdominal imaging, heavy arrythmia of the heart function, fast dynamic processes, or very ill and traumatized patients, very fast scanning is necessary.


Flip Angle Excitation Pulse Transverse Magnetization Spin Echo Joint Fluid 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marinus T. Vlaardingerbroek
    • 1
  • Jacques A. den Boer
    • 2
  1. 1.The Netherlands
  2. 2.The Netherlands

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