• Viacheslav E. Kunitsyn
  • Evgeny D. Tereshchenko
Part of the Physics of Earth and Space Environments book series (EARTH)


Investigation of the structure of ionospheric irregularities is a very important topic for many practical problems, both in geophysical research (in studying the structure of the ionosphere and the physics of processes running there) and in various radio applications associated with radio wave propagation (since the ionosphere as a medium of propagation may cause a noticeable effect on the operation of various navigation, location, and communication systems). Among various sounding techniques, the major ones are remote sensing methods that provide real-time information, which is of key significance due to the inconstancy of the ionosphere. Of special interest are radio probing methods that use well-developed equipment and advanced measurement techniques. During their more than 70-year history, these methods proved to be most contributory to the investigation of the ionospheric structure — the main body of facts has been obtained by just radio sounding methods. Optical methods for ionosphere diagnostics have also been successfully used for many years.


Radio Wave Propagation Ionospheric Irregularity Radio Tomography Aperture Angle Spheric Tomography 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viacheslav E. Kunitsyn
    • 1
  • Evgeny D. Tereshchenko
    • 2
  1. 1.Physics Faculty, Atmospheric Physics Dept.M. Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussian Federation
  2. 2.Polar Geophysical InstituteMurmanskRussian Federation

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