Advertisement

Operational Measurement of Precipitation in Mountainous Terrain

  • Urs Germann
  • Jürg Joss
Chapter
Part of the Physics of Earth and Space Environments book series (EARTH)

Abstract

To put a weather radar in a mountainous region is like pitching a tent in a snowstorm: The practical use is obvious and large — but so are the problems.

Keywords

Elevation Angle Mountainous Terrain Radar Reflectivity Spatial Continuity Weather Radar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andrieu, H., G. Delrieu, and J. D. Creutin, 1995: Identification of vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for hydrological applications using an inverse method. Part II: Sensitivity Analysis and Case Study. J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 240–259.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boscacci, M., 1999: Quality checks for elaborate radar measures. COST-75 Final International Seminar on Advanced Weather Radar Systems, edited by C. G. Collier, EUR 18567 EN, Comm. of the European Commun, Locarno, Switzerland, pp. 280–287.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bougeault, P., et al., 2001: The MAP Special Observing Period. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 433–462.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collier, C. G., P. R. Larke, and B. R. May, 1983: A weather radar correction procedure for real-time estimation of surface rainfall. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 109, 589–608.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frei, C., and C. Schär, 1998: A precipitation climatology of the Alps from high-resolution rain-gauge observations. Int. J. Climatology, 18, 873–900.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gabella, M., and G. Perona, 1998: Simulation of the orographic influence on weather radar using a geometric-optics approach. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 1486–1495.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gabella, M., J. Joss, and G. Perona, 2000: Optimizing quantitative precipitation estimates using a noncoherent and a coherent radar operating on the same area. J. Geophys. Res., 105 - D2, 2237–2245.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gabella, M., J. Joss, G. Perona, and G. Galli, 2001: Accuracy of rainfall estimates by two radars in the same Alpine environment using gage adjustment. J. Geophys. Res., 106 - D6, 5139–5150.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Germann, U., 1999: Radome attenuation — a serious limiting factor for quantitative radar measurements? Meteor. Z., 8, 85–90.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Germann, U., 2000: Spatial Continuity of Precipitation, Profiles of Radar Reflectivity and Precipitation Measurements in the Alps,PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), online at http://e-collection.ethbib.ethz.ch, 120 pp.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Germann, U., and J. Joss, 2001: Variograms of radar reflectivity to describe the spatial continuity of Alpine precipitation. J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 1042–1059.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Germann, U., and J. Joss, 2002: Mesobeta profiles to extrapolate radar precipitation measurements above the Alps to the ground level. J. Appl. Meteorol., 41, 542–557.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Germann, U., and J. Joss, 1999: Meso-gamma reflectivity profiles correlate with horizontal features, a help to improve precipitation estimates? Proc. 29th Conf. Radar Meteorol., AMS, pp. 848–851.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Germann, U., and I. Zawadzki, 2002: Scale-dependence of the predictability of precipitation from continental radar images. Part I: Description of the methodology. Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 2859–2873.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joss, J., et al., 1998: Operational Use of Radar for Precipitation Measurements in Switzerland,vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich, online at http://www.meteoswiss.ch, 108 pp.
  16. 16.
    Joss, J., and R. Lee, 1995: The application of radar-gauge comparisons to operational precipitation profile corrections. J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 2612–2630.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joss, J., and A. Pittini, 1991: Real-time estimation of the vertical profile of radar reflectivity to improve the measurement of precipitation in an Alpine region. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 47, 61–72.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Joss, J., and A. Waldvogel, 1990: Precipitation measurements and hydrology. Radar in Meteorology, edited by D. Atlas, Am. Meteorol. Soc., pp. 577–597.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231–1254.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koistinen, J., 1991: Operational correction of radar rainfall errors due to the vertical reflectivity profile. Proc. 25th Conf. Radar Meteorol., AMS, pp. 91–94.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kracmar, J., J. Joss, P. Novak, P. Havranek, and M. Salek, 1999: First steps towards quantitative usage of data from Czech weather radar network. COST-75 Final International Seminar on Advanced Weather Radar Systems, edited by C. G. Collier, EUR 18567 EN, Comm. of the European Commun., Locarno, Switzerland, pp. 91–101.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee, R., G. Della Bruna, and J. Joss, 1995: Intensity of ground clutter and of echoes of anomalous propagation and its elimination. Proc. 27th Conf. Radar Meteorol., AMS, pp. 651–652.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li, L., W. Schmid, and J. Joss, 1995: Nowcasting of motion and growth of precipitation with radar over a complex orography. J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 1286–1300.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mecklenburg, S., J. Joss, and W. Schmid, 2000: Improving the nowcasting of precipitation in an Alpine region with an enhanced radar echo tracking algorithm. J. Hydrol., 239, 46–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mittermaier, M. P., and A. J. Illingworth, 2002: Comparison of model-derived and radar-observed freezing level heights: Implications for vertical reflectivity profile correction schemes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., in press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pellarin, T., G. Delrieu, J. D. Creutin, and H. Andrieu, 2000: Hydrologic visibility of weather radars operating in high-mountainous regions: A case study for the Toce Catchment (Italy) during the Mesoscale Alpine Programme Phys. Chem. Earth (B), 25, 953–957.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sanchez-Diezma, R., D. Sempere-Torres, J. D. Creutin, I. Zawadzki, and G. Delrieu, 2001: Factors affecting the precision of radar measurement of rain. An assessment from an hydrological perspective. Proc. 30th Conf. Radar Meteorol., AMS, pp. 573–575.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smyth, T. J., and A. J. Illingworth, 1998: Radar estimates of rainfall rates at the ground in bright band and non-bright band events. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 2417–2434.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vignal, B., H. Andrieu, and J. D. Creutin, 1999: Identification of vertical profiles of reflectivity from volume scan radar data. J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 1214–1228.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vignal, B., G. Galli, J. Joss, and U. Germann, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct precipitation estimates. J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 1715–1726.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urs Germann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jürg Joss
    • 2
  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  2. 2.MeteoSwissLocarno-MontiSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations