Mathematical Aspects in the Second Viennese School of Music

  • Carlota Simões
Part of the Mathematics and Visualization book series (MATHVISUAL)


Mathematics and Music seem nowadays independent areas of knowledge. Nevertheless, strong connections exist between them since ancient times. Twentieth-century music is no exception, since in many aspects it admits an obvious mathematical formalization. In this article some twelve-tone music rules, as created by Schoenberg, are presented and translated into mathematics. The representation obtained is used as a tool in the analysis of some compositions by Schoenberg, Berg, Webern (the Second Viennese School) and also by Milton Babbitt (a contemporary composer born in 1916).


Mathematical Aspect Basic Series Chromatic Scale Inverse Series Equivalence Class Modulo 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlota Simões
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of CoimbraPortugal

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