Conflict Management and Consensus-Building for Integrated Coastal Zone Management — Does Stakeholder Involvement Fit to the Baltic Sea Region?
The coastal zones are economically, socially and ecologically very diverse. Spatial management and planning processes very often base on technical, ecological and economic expertise only. They often lack stakeholder involvement and, therefore, are substantially missing the social dimension of conflicts. The picture changed after the Rio Summit in 1992. We have seen an increasing effort towards stakeholder involvement also in the management of coastal zones for the last ten years. There are many reports on different types of activity in various coastal cities and regions around the world available now. In SE Asia or in Latin America, people focus, for instance, on a sustainable management of mangroves to support subsistence economies; ICZM is still an issue with the state or state authorities in the economic zone in North America but a joint stakeholder approach in the drainage basin of the Chesapeake Bay. The opportunities for ICZM changed in the Baltic Sea region after the collapse of the Iron Curtain about ten years ago. International and interregional co-operation evolves, and the free transfer of knowledge and experience supports the improvement of the overall ecological situation in the region. Stakeholder involvement successfully takes place on the local level and on the level of small regions. International projects, founded by the EU, strongly encourage social participation and try to connect the local and regional initiatives. Stakeholder involvement will add an important dimension to ICZM in the Baltic Sea and will add the social dimension to complete management tools such as technical and economic planning for decision-making.
KeywordsCoastal Zone Conflict Resolution National Park Conflict Management Stakeholder Involvement
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