Routes of Transcriptional Activation in the Testis: CREM and its Co-Activator ACT
- 138 Downloads
Coordinated gene expression programs govern the complex processes of cell growth and differentiation. The modulation of gene expression by specific signal transduction pathways enables cells to trigger the appropriate short- and long-term adaptation programs in response to environmental cues. Many transcription factors are final targets of specific transduction pathways. Factors of the CREB (cAMP-responsive element binding protein) family were originally identified as activators that respond directly to the cyclic AMP-dependent signaling pathway via phosphorylation by the protein kinase A (PKA) (Montminy 1997; Sassone-Corsi 1995). This family comprises a large number of proteins encoded by the CREB, CREM (cAMP-responsive element modulator) and ATF-1 (activating transcription factor 1) genes. Recently, it has become apparent that members of the CREB family play important roles in the nuclear responses to a variety of external signals. CREB and CREM have also been shown to function in many physiological systems, including memory and long-term potentiation (Silva et al. 1998), circadian rhythms (Foulkes et al. 1997), pituitary function (Struthers et al. 1991) and spermatogenesis (Sassone-Corsi 1998).
KeywordsMale Germ Cell Inducible cAMP Early Repressor FHL4 Expression CREM Expression CREM Gene
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fimia GM, De Cesare D, Sassone-Corsi P (1998) Mechanisms of activation by CREB and CREM: phosphorylation, CBP, and a novel coactivator, ACT. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 63: 631–642Google Scholar
- Kistler MK, Sassone-Corsi P, Kistler WS (1994) Identification of a functional cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate response element in the 5’-flanking region of the gene for transition protein 1 (TP1), a basic chromosomal protein of mammalian spermatids. Biol Reprod 51: 1322–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rozman D, Fink M, Fimia GM, Sassone-Corsi P, Waterman MR (1999) cAMP/CREM-dependent regulation of cholesterogenic lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51) in spermatids. Mol Endocrinol 13: 1951–1962.Google Scholar
- Zhou Y, Sun Z, Means AR, Sassone CP, Bernstein KE (1996) cAMP-response element modulator tau is a positive regulator of testis angiotensin converting enzyme transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 12262–12266Google Scholar