Quarks and SU(3) Symmetry



By 1960 a great number of particles (which decay weakly) and resonances (which decay strongly) had been discovered. Some are seen in production reactions, where they are produced along with other final-state particles (such as the ω meson in p\(\bar p\) → π+π ω), others in formation reactions, where they are the only products of collisions between the incident particles (such as the isobar resonance Δ in πp →Δ). This proliferation of particles and resonances calls for an organizing scheme more powerful than the Gell-Mann-Nishijima relation — in fact, a model that could embody the main features of known symmetry principles, establish or suggest relationships among particles, and provide a good basis for an eventual dynamic approach.


Vector Meson Adjoint Representation Pseudoscalar Meson Irreducible Tensor Mixed Symmetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggestions for Further Reading

General references on group theory

  1. Georgi, H., Lie Algebras in Particle Physics. Benjamin, Reading, MA 1982zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Gilmore, R., Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Some of Their Applications. Wiley, New York 1974Google Scholar
  3. Lichtenberg, D., Unitary Symmetry and Elementary Particles. Academic Press, New York 1978Google Scholar
  4. Tung, Wu-Ki, Group Theory in Physics. World Scientific, Singapore 1985Google Scholar

Early models

  1. Fermi, E. and Yang, C. N., Phys. Rev. 76 (1949) 1739 Sakata, S., Progr. Theor. Phys. 16 (1956) 686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Introduction of the SU(3) octet structure of mesons and baryons: Gell-Mann, M., Phys. Rev. 125 (1962) 1067Google Scholar
  3. Gell-Mann, M. and Ne’eman, Y., The Eightfold Way: A Review — With Collection of Reprints. Benjamin, New York 1964Google Scholar
  4. Ne’eman, Y., Nucl. Phys. 20 (1961) 222MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Introduction of quarks as fundamental building blocks for hadrons

  1. Gell-Mann, M., Phys. Lett. 8 (1964) 214ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Zweig, G., CERN-8419-TH-412 (1964). Reprinted in Development in the Quark Theory of Hadrons, (ed. by Lichtenberg, D. B. and Rosen, S. P. ). Hadronic Press, Monamtum, MA 1980Google Scholar

Introduction of the SU(6) classification of hadrons

  1. Gürsey, F. and Radicati, L. A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 13 (1964) 173MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Sakita, B., Phys. Rev. 136 (1964) B1756MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

The quark potential model

  1. Appelquist, T. and Politzer, H., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 43; Appelquist, T.Google Scholar
  2. Barnett, R. M. and Lane K., Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 28 (1978) 387ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Close, F. E., An Introduction to Quarks and Partons. Academic Press, New York 1979Google Scholar

Introduction of the color quantum number

  1. Greenberg, O. W., Phys. Rev. Lett. 13 (1964) 598ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Han, M. Y. and Nambu, Y., Phys. Rev. 139 (1965) B1006MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Discoveries of c, b, t, and r

  1. Abachi, S. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 2632 (top)Google Scholar
  2. Abe, F. et al., Phys. Rev. D50 (1994) 2966 (top)Google Scholar
  3. Abe, F. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 2626 (top)Google Scholar
  4. Aubert, J. J. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 1404 (charm)Google Scholar
  5. Augustin, J. E. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 1406 (charm)Google Scholar
  6. Herb, S. W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 39 (1977) 252 (bottom)Google Scholar
  7. Perl, M. L. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 35 (1975) 1489 (r lepton)Google Scholar

Additional references may be found in

  1. Ezhela, V. V. et al, Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries: An Annotated Chronological Bibliography. AIP Press, New York 1996zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Data are quoted from

  1. Review of Particle Properties, Phys. Rev. D54 (1996) 1MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentUniversité LavalSte-FoyCanada
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes EnergiesUniversités Paris VI et VIIParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations