• K. Kubitzki
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 3)


Juicy unbranched herbs of monopodial growth with scale leaves on rootstock; plants almost glabrous or with sparse uniseriate hairs. Leaves fleshy, but papyraceous when dry, dispersed, long-petiolate and sheathing at the base; blade ovate, with 6–8 pairs of arching basal and suprabasal veins connected by numerous transversal veinlets; margin entire. Inflorescences axillary, simple or compound racemes; flowers and bracts dotted with raphides; prophylls absent. Flowers functionally wholly or partly unisexual, pedicelled, 5-merous; tepals in 1 whorl, free or partly united, imbricate, outside papillose, persisting in fruit; stamens 5, in 1 whorl, ± sessile; filaments apparently absent and completely united into a conspicuous fleshy ring; connectives together with the top of the hypanthium and ovary grown into a complicated, swollen, disclike structure, leaving 5 pouches, in each of which 2 thecae of adjacent anthers are situated; anthers consisting of 2 short, broadly ovate thecae, each opening by a longitudinal lateral slit; ovary inferior, unilocular; ovules numerous, on 3 inward projecting parietal placentae; style short, inconspicuous; stigma broad, flattish, entire or 3- or 4-lobed. Fruit berrylike, sharply longitudinally 10-ridged. Seeds many, with a collarlike undulate arillode covering about one third of the seed; exostesta (sarcotesta) transparent; both testa and tegmen 2-layered; endosperm copious, embryo small.


Pollen Morphology Stomatal Complex Stigmatic Lobe Fossil Pollen Record Piperidine Alkaloid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected Bibliography

  1. Bouman, F. 1995. Seed structure and systematics in Dioscoreales. In: Rudall 1995. See general references, pp. 139–156.Google Scholar
  2. Bouman, F., Devente, H. 1992. Ovules and seeds in Stemona (Stemonaceae) and Pentastemona ( Pentastemonaceae ). Blumea 36: 501–514.Google Scholar
  3. Duyfjes, B.E.E. 1991. Stemonaceae and Pentastemonaceae; with miscellaneous notes on members of both families. Blumea 36: 239–252.Google Scholar
  4. Duyfjes, B.E.E. 1993. Pentastemonaceae. In: Flora Malesiana I, 11: 393–398. Leyden: Flora Malesiana Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Ham, R.W.J.M. van der 1991. Pollen morphology of the Stemonaceae. Blumea 36: 127–159.Google Scholar
  6. Heel, W.A. van 1992. Floral morphology of Stemonaceae and Pentastemonaceae. Blumea 36: 481–499.Google Scholar
  7. Steenis, C.G.G.J. van 1982. Pentastemona, a new 5-merous genus of monocotyledons from North Sumatra (Stemonaceae). Blumea 28: 151–163,2 figs.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

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  • K. Kubitzki

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