Flowering Plants · Monocotyledons

Volume 3 of the series The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants pp 164-172


  • M. N. Tamura

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Rhizomatous or bulbiferous perennials. Stem often leafy, sometimes scapiform, usually aerial, rarely subterranean, usually erect, rarely descending, simple or branching. Foliage leaves alternate, sometimes with much reduced internodes, linear to elliptical, apically obtuse to long caudate-acuminate, subsessile or sessile to amplexicaul, rarely perfoliate, often parallel-veined, sometimes reticulate-veined, sometimes dark-spotted. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, often 1-flowered, or umbelliform, sometimes a thyrse or a thyrsoid, rarely a raceme. Flowers bisexual, hypogynous, actinomorphic, erect or nodding, often showy. Perianth often campanulate to subrotate, sometimes tubular-campanulate, infundibular or cupular, sometimes recurved. Tepals 3 + 3, free, the whorls similar or highly different, white, green, yellow, red, lavender or purple, often purple-spotted, purple-striped, or patterned with specks of contrasting color, usually nectariferous. Stamens usually 3 + 3, rarely 3 + 0 (Scoliopus), free, inserted at tepal base. Filaments often subulate or flattened, dilated at base, sometimes filiform. Anthers often oblong, sometimes sagittate, lanceolate or linear, dorsifixed versatile or basifixed, extrorse or latrorse. Carpels 3; ovary often 3(−1)-locular; ovules 2-many in each locule; style long to very short, apically subentire to 3-parted. Fruit a septicidal or irregularly rupturing capsule or a berry; seeds globose, oblong, irregular or flattened, sometimes with elaiosome.