• C. Bayer
  • O. Appel
  • P. J. Rudall
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 3)


Perennial, short stemmed herbs, often rhizomatous, occasionally epiphytic; dioecious, gynodioecious or hermaphroditic (Milligania). Leaves spirally arranged, with open or closed sheaths and linear to lanceolate laminas, usually densely pubescent, at least when young, sometimes whitish to silvery, woolly, especially on the broadened base. Inflorescences terminal, composed of racemes, few-flowered in some spp., sometimes densely covered with silky-woolly, whitish to silvery hairs. Flowers trimerous or up to heptamerous, pedicellate without articulation to sessile, actinomorphic, pentacyclic. Tepals in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, membranous and bractlike or fleshy. Stamens 6, filaments free or basally adnate to tepals in Milligania Anthers dorsifixed to basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, introrse; female flowers with staminodes. Ovary superior, 3(-7)-carpellate, trilocular with axile placentation, or rarely (in Astelia section Astelia) unilocular with parietal placentation; mucilage-secreting intraovarian trichomes often present (Astelia, Collospermum); septal nectaries present; ovules several per locule, anatropous, funicles hairy in some species; styluli short (Milligania) or lacking; stigmas usually (sub-)sessile, sometimes confluent; male flowers with pistillodes, or sometimes bearing (sub-)fertile ovules. Fruit a berry, or capsule in Milligania, few-to many-seeded. Seeds more or less ovate, often angular, sometimes embedded in mucilaginous hairs; testa hard, black; endosperm abundant.


Female Flower Male Flower Stylar Branch Scalariform Perforation Plate Fertile Ovule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Bayer
  • O. Appel
  • P. J. Rudall

There are no affiliations available

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