Surface States, Surface Effects

  • Stefan Hüfner
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 82)

Abstract

It has been stated already that PES, because of the small escape depth of the electrons in a solid, in principle, is a surface sensitive technique. However, the agreement found in the preceding chapter between calculated and experimental bulk band structures was remarkable. We take this as evidence that most of the information obtained in a PES experiment is representative for the bulk solid. This is due to the fact that the electronic and lattice relaxation at the surface of a solid are generally not very large. This means, for example, that for most materials the interlattice spacing perpendicular to the surface is changed measurably only for the topmost layer, typically only by a few percent of the bulk lattice constant. A similar statement holds with respect to the perturbation of the electron states perpendicular to a surface: the unperturbed bulk electronic states are generally found to within one lattice constant from the surface. Therefore in conventional PES experiments, which probe several atomic layers perpendicular to the surface, the genuine surface contribution is not a large fraction of the total measured spectrum and is often even hard to recover (but see Sect. 7.3.4 for notable exceptions).

Keywords

Wave Function Surface State Fermi Energy Vacuum Level High Potential Barrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hüfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

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