Advertisement

Bandstructure and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectra

  • Stefan Hüfner
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 82)

Abstract

The direct transitions which, as shown in Chap.6, dominate the EDCs from UPS, can be used to determine the electronic band structure of a solid. Looking at standard textbooks on solid-state physics one notices that, while for phonons the band structures (i.e., dispersion relations) have been mapped out — since several years — for a number of representative solids in considerable detail by neutron diffraction, such information has become available only recently for the electronic case. Generally the Fermi surface, which is the surface of the energy E = EF in k-space has been measured. In addition, a few selected points in the E(k) diagram are known from optical experiments. However, only recently, with the utilization of a wide body of material from PES (mostly employing synchrotron radiation), has one been able to determine the electronic dispersion curves for a number of solids. A few representative examples will be given in this chapter, but first the question of how band structure information can be extracted from measured EDCs will be dealt with.

Keywords

Band Structure Fermi Surface Brillouin Zone Normal Emission Brillouin Zone Boundary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 7.1
    For a recent comprehensive treatment of the field of angle-resolved PES see S.D. Kevan (ed.): Angle-Resolved Photoemission, Theory and Current Applications, Studies in Surf. Sci. Catal., Vol.74 (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1992);Google Scholar
  2. 7.1a
    a discussion of the relation between ground-state and excited-state band structures via PES can be found in R.W. Goodby, R.J. Needs: Physics Scripta T 31, 227 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 7.2
    J. Stöhr, P.S. Wehner, R.S. Williams, G. Apai, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 17, 587 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 7.3
    P. Thiry, D. Chandesris, J. Le Cante, G. Guillot, P. Pinchaux, Y. Petroff: Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 82(1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 7.3a
    Y. Petroff, P. Thiry: Appl. Optics 19, 3957 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.4
    P. Thiry: La photoémission angulaire dans les solides, thèse d’état, Université Paris VI, 1979Google Scholar
  7. 7.5
    R. Courths, H. Schulz, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 29, 667 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.6
    R. Courths, S. Hüfner, H. Schulz: Z. Phys. B 35, 107 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.7
    D.E. Eastman, J.A. Knapp, F.J. Himpsel: Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 825 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 7.8
    J.A. Knapp, F.J. Himpsel, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. B 19, 4952 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 7.9
    E. Dietz, F.J. Himpsel: Solid State Commun. 30, 235 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 7.10
    D.T. Ling, J.N. Miller, D.L. Weiszmann, P. Pianetta, L.I. Johansson, I. Lindau, W.L. Spicer: Surf. Sci. 92, 350 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 7.11
    A.R. Mackintosh, O.K. Andersen: In Electrons at the Fermi Surface, ed. by M. Springford (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1980)Google Scholar
  14. 7.12
    P. Hohenberg, W. Kohn: Phys. Rev. 136, B864 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 7.13
    W. Kohn, L.J. Sham: Phys. Rev. 140, A1133 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 7.14
    L. Hedin, B.L. Lundquist: J. Phys. C 4, 2064 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 7.15
    R. Courths, B. Cord, H. Wern, S. Hüfner: Physica Scripta T 4, 144 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 7.16
    R.S. Williams, P.S. Wehner, J. Stoehr, D.A. Shirley: Surf. Sci. 75, 216 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 7.17
    D. Westphal, A. Goldmann: Surf. Sci. 131, 92 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 7.18
    P.J. Jennings, S.M. Thurgate: Surf. Sci. 104, L210 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 7.19
    G.A. Burdick: Phys. Rev. 129, 138 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 7.20
    L. Hodges, H. Ehrenreich, N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. 152, 505 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 7.21
    F.M. Müller: Phys. Rev. 153, 659 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 7.22
    L. Ehrenreich, L. Hodges: In Methods in Computational Physics, Vol.8 (Academic, New York 1968)Google Scholar
  25. 7.23
    H. Martensson, P.O. Nilsson: Phys. Rev. B 30, 3047 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 7.24
    F.J. Himpsel, J.A. Knapp, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. B19, 2919 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 7.25
    W. Eberhardt, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. B 21, 3245 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 7.26
    V.L. Moruzzi, J.F. Janak, A.R. Williams: Calculated Electron Properties of Metals (Pergamon, New York 1978)Google Scholar
  29. 7.27
    E. Jensen, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1912 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 7.28
    D.E. Eastman: In Electron Spectroscopy, ed. by D.A. Shirley (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1972) p.487Google Scholar
  31. 7.29
    C.S. Fadley, D.A. Shirley: In Electronic Density of States ed. by L.H. Bennet (Nat’l Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 232) (U.S.GPO, Washington, D.C. 1971) p.163Google Scholar
  32. 7.30
    S. Hüfner, G.K. Wertheim, N.V. Smith, M.M. Traum: Solid State Commun. 11, 323(1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 7.31
    R.J. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Hermanson, G.J. Lapeyre: Solid State Commun. 21, 459(1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 7.32
    C. Guillot, Y. Ballu, J. Paigne, J. Lecante, K.P. Jain, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, Y. Petroff, L.M. Falicov: Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1632 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 7.33
    D.E. Eastman, F.J. Himpsel, J.A. Knapp: Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1514 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 7.34
    M.M. Traum, N.V. Smith, H.H. Farrel, D.P. Woodruff, D. Norman: Phys. Rev. B 20, 4008 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 7.35
    W. Eberhardt, E.W. Plummer, K. Horn, J. Erskine: Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 273 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 7.36
    J. Barth, G. Kalkoffen, C. Kunz: Phys. Lett. A 74, 360 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 7.37
    R. Clauberg, W. Gudat, E. Kisker, G.M. Rothberg: Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1314 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 7.38
    D.R. Penn: Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 921 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 7.39
    R. Courths, S. Hüfner: Phys. Rep. 112, 53 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 7.40
    H. Wern: Winkelaufgelöste ultraviolett Photoelektronenspektroskopie an Silber. Thesis, Universität des Saarlandes (1985)Google Scholar
  43. 7.41
    E.D. Kane: Phys. Rev. Let. 12, 97 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 7.42
    P. Heimann, H. Miosga, H. Neddermeyer: Solid State Commun. 29, 463 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 7.43
    P.O. Nilsson, N. Dahlbaeck: Solid State Commun. 29, 303 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 7.44
    H. Asonen, M. Lindroos, M. Pessa, N. Dahlbaeck: Solid State Commun. 35, 69 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 7.45
    R. Courths, V. Bachelier, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 38, 887 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 7.46
    M. Lindroos, H. Asonen, M. Pessa, N.V. Smith: Solid State Commun. 39, 285 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 7.47
    R. Courths: Solid State Commun. 40, 529 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 7.48
    R. Courths, V. Bachelier, B. Cord, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 40, 1059 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 7.49
    M. Pessa, M. Lindroos, H. Asonen, N.V. Smith: Phys. Rev. B 25, 738 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 7.50
    R. Courths, H. Wern, U. Hau, B. Cord, V. Bachelier, S. Hüfner: J. Phys. F., Metal Phys. 14, 1559 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 7.51
    R. Courths, H. Wern, U. Hau, B. Cord, V. Bachelier, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 49, 989 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 7.52
    H. Becker, E. Dietz, U. Gerhardt, A. Angermueller: Phys. Rev. B 12, 2084 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 7.53
    H. Eckardt, L. Fritsche, J. Noffke: J. Phys. F 14, 97 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 7.54
    M. Wöhlecke, A. Baalmann, M. Neumann: Solid State Commun. 49, 217 (1984) A. Baalmann, M. Neumann: BESSY Annual Report 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 7.55
    E. Dietz, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1674 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 7.56
    J.F. Janak, A.R. Williams, V.L. Moruzzi: Phys. Rev. B 11, 1522 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 7.57
    H. Wern, R. Courths, G. Leschik, S. Hüfner: Z. Physik B 60, 293 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 7.58
    R. Rosei, R. Lässer, N.V. Smith, R.L. Benbow: Solid State Commun. 35, 979 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 7.59
    J.A. Knapp, F.J. Himpsel, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. B 19, 4952 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 7.60
    P.T. Coleridge, I.M. Templeton: Phys. Rev. B 25, 7818 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 7.61
    R.L. Benbow, N.V. Smith: Phys. Rev. B 27, 3144 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 7.62a
    N.V. Smith: In Photoemission in Solids I, ed. by M. Cardona, L. Ley, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1978) Chap.6Google Scholar
  65. 7.62b
    B. Dardel, D. Malterre, M. Grioni, P. Weber, Y. Baer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3144 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 7.62c
    R. Claessen, G.H. Gweon, F. Reinert, J.W. Allen, W.P. Ellis, Z.X. Shen, CG. Olson, L.F. Schneemeyer, F. Lévy: Proc. 6th Int’l Conf. on Electron Spectrosc (Rome 1995), to be published in J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. These communications, among others, show the special properties of one-dimensional metals, as observed by PES, most notably the absence of a sharp Fermi cut-off, an energy renormalization of the bands calculated for noninter-acting electrons which is larger than one, and possibly a splitting of the one-electron band into a spinon and a holon branch. A system exhibiting these properties is sometimes called a Luttinger liquid Google Scholar
  67. 7.62d
    J.M. Luttinger: J. Math. Phys. 4, 1154 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 7.62e
    V. Meden, K. Schönhammen: Phys. Rev. B 46, 15763 (1992); ibid. B 47, 16205 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 7.62f
    J. Voit: Phys. Rev. B 47, 6740 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 7.63
    H. Przbylski, A. Baalmann, G. Borstel, M. Neumann: Phys. Rev. B 27, 6669 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 7.64
    F.J. Himpsel, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 507 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 7.65
    K.A. Mills, R.F. Davis, S.D. Kevan, G. Thornton, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 22, 581 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 7.66
    D.P. Woodruff, N.V. Smith, P.D. Johnson, W.A. Royer: Phys. Rev. B 26, 2943 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 7.67
    W. Altmann, V. Dose, A. Goldmann, U. Kolac, J. Rogozik: Phys. Rev. B 29, 3015 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 7.68
    C.N. Berglund, W.E. Spicer: Phys. Rev. 136, A1030 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 7.69
    C.N. Berglund, W.E. Spicer: Phys. Rev. 136, A1044 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 7.70
    N.V. Smith: Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 2, 45 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 7.71
    T. Gustafsson, P.O. Nilsson, L. Wallden: Phys. Lett. A 37, 121 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 7.72
    L. Wallden, T.G. Gustafsson: Phys. Scr. 6, 73 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 7.72a
    R.C. Jaklevic, J. Lambe: Phys. Rev. B 12, 4146 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 7.72b
    R. Rosei, C.H. Culp, J.H. Weaver: Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 7.72c
    P.O. Nilsson, B. Sandell: Solid State Commun. 8, 721 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 7.72d
    D.v.d. Marel, G.A. Sawatzky, R. Zeher, F.U. Hillebrecht, J.C. Fuggle: Solid State Commun. 50, 47 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 7.72e
    B. Reihl, R.R. Schüttler: Phys. Rev. B 29, 2267 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 7.73
    N.V. Smith, M.M. Traum: Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1243 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 7.74
    P.O. Nilsson, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Scr. 8, 113 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 7.75
    H.F. Roloff, H. Neddermeyer: Solid State Commun. 21, 561 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 7.76
    P. Heimann, H. Neddermeyer, H.F. Roloff: Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 775 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 7.77
    F.L. Battye, A. Goldmann, L. Kasper, S. Hüfner: Z. Phys. B 27, 209 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 7.78
    D. Liebowitz, N.J. Shevchik: Phys. Rev. B 17, 3825 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 7.79
    D. Liebowitz, N.J. Shevchik: Phys. Rev. B 16, 2395 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 7.80
    G.V. Hansson, S.A. Flodström: Phys. Rev. B 18, 1562 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 7.81
    S.P. Weeks, J.E. Rowe: Solid State Commun. 27, 885 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 7.82
    P.S. Wehner, R.S. Williams, S.D. Kevan, D. Denley, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 19, 6164 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 7.83
    D.P. Spears, R. Melander, L.G. Petersson, S.B.M. Hagström: Phys. Rev. B 21, 1462 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 7.84
    G. Borstel, M. Neumann, G. Wöhlecke: Phys. Rev. B 23, 3121 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 7.85
    A. Goldmann, D. Westphal, R. Courths: Phys. Rev. B 25, 2000 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 7.86
    H.A. Padmore, C. Norris, G.C. Smith, C.G. Larsson, D. Norman: J. Phys. C, Solid State Phys. 15, L155 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 7.87
    K.C. Prince, G. Paolucci, B. Hayden, A.M. Bradshaw: Bessy Report 1983Google Scholar
  100. 7.88
    H. Wern, G. Leschik, U. Hau, R. Courths: Solid State Commun. 50, 581 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 7.89
    For a compilation of band structures determined by photoemission spectroscopy see Landolt-Bömstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 23a (1989) and 23b (1994), ed. by A. Goldmann, E.E. Koch (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg)Google Scholar
  102. 7.90
    J.G. Nelson, S. Kim, W.J. Gignac, R.S. Williams, J.G. Tobin, S.W. Robey, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 32, 3465 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 7.91
    H. Wern, R. Courths: Surf. Sci. 162, 29 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 7.92
    N.E. Christensen: Phys. States Solidi (b) 54, 551 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 7.93
    O. Jepsen, D. Gloetzel, A.R. Mackintosh: Phys. Rev. B 23, 2683 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 7.94
    J.A. Wilson, A.D. Yoffe: Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 7.95
    R.C. Tatar, S. Rabii: Phys. Rev. B 25, 4126 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 7.96
    F.R. McFeely, S.P. Kowalczyk, L. Ley, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Lett. A 49, 301 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 7.96a
    F.R. McFeely, S.P. Kowalczyk, L. Ley, R.G. Cavell, R.A. Pollak, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 9, 5268(1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 7.97
    A.R. Law, M.T. Johnson, H.P. Hughes: Phys. Rev. B 34, 4289 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 7.98
    D. Marchan, C. Fretigny, M. Lagues, F. Batallan, Ch. Simon, I. Rosenman, R. Pinchaux: Phys. Rev. B 30, 4788 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 7.99
    T. Takahashi, H. Tokailin, T. Sagawa: Solid State Commun. 52, 765 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 7.100
    A.R. Law, J.J. Barry, H.P. Hughes: Phys. Rev. B 28, 5332 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 7.101
    I.T. McGovern, W. Eberhardt, E.W. Plummer, J.E. Fischer: Physica B 99B, 415 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 7.102
    P.M. Williams, D. Latham, J. Wood: J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 7, 281 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 7.103
    R.F. Willis, B. Feuerbacher, B. Fitton: Phys. Rev. B 4, 2441 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 7.104
    V. Dose, G. Reusing, H. Scheidt: Phys. Rev. B 26, 984 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 7.105
    Th. Fauster, F.J. Himpsel, J.J. Donelson, A. Marx: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 68 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 7.106
    R.F. Willis, B. Fitton, G.S. Painter: Phys. Rev. B 9, 1926 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 7.107
    L.S. Caputi, G. Chiarello, E. Colavita, A. Santaniello, L. Papagno: Surface Sci. 152/153, 278 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 7.108
    Th. Fauster, F.J. Himpsel, J.E. Fischer, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 470 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 7.109
    N.A.W. Holzwarth, S.G. Louie, S. Rabii: Phys. Rev. B 26, 5382 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 7.110
    M. Posternak, A. Baldereschi, A.J. Freeman, E. Wimmer, M. Weinert: Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 761 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 7.111
    M. Posternak, A. Baldereschi, A.J. Freeman, E. Wimmer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 863 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 7.112
    I. Schäfer, M. Schlitzer, M. Skibowski: Phys. Rev. B 35, 7663 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 7.113
    F. Maeda, T. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, S. Suzuki: Phys. Rev. B 37, 4482 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 7.114
    C.T. Chen, N.V. Smith: Phys. Rev. B 40, 7487 (1989); and Surf. Sci. 247, 133 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 7.115
    R. Courths, B. Cord, H. Wem, H. Saalfeld, S. Hüfner: Solid State Commun. 63, 619 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 7.116
    A. Spitzer, H. Lüth: Surf. Sci. 118, 121 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 7.117
    R.A. Didio, D.M. Zehner, E.W. Plummer: J. Vac. Sci. Techn. A 62, 852 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 7.118
    W. Jacob, V. Dose, A. Goldmann: Appl. Phys. A 41, 145 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 7.119
    R.P.N. Bronckers, A.G.J. De Wit: Surf. Sci. 112, 133 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 7.120
    J. Lapujoulade, Y. LeCruer, M. Lefort, Y. Lejay, E. Maurel: Surf. Sci. 118, 103 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 7.121
    H.L. Davis, J.R. Noonan: 41st Physical Electronics Conference, Bozeman, Montana (1981)Google Scholar
  135. 7.122
    R. Feidenhans’l, I. Stensgaard: Surf. Sci. 133, 453 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 7.123
    J.F. Wendelken: Surf. Sci. 108, 605 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 7.124
    U. Doebler, K. Baberschke, J. Haase, A. Puschmann: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1437 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 7.125
    G. Ertl: Surf. Sci. 6, 208 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 7.126
    G. Ertl, J. Kueppers: Surf. Sci. 24, 104 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 7.127
    A.J.de Wit, R.P.N. Bronckers, J.M. Fluit: Surf. Sci. 82, 177 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 7.128
    J. Lapujoulade, Y. Le Cruer, M. Lefort, Y. Lejay, E. Maurel: Phys. Rev. B 22, 5740 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 7.129
    M. Bader, A. Puschmann, C. Ocal, J. Haase: Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 3273 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 7.130
    U. Doebler, K. Baberschke, D.D. Vvedensky, J.B. Pendry: Surf. Sci. 178, 679 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 7.131
    P. Hofman, R. Unwin, W. Wyrobisch, A.M. Bradshaw: Surf. Sci. 72, 635 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 7.132
    H. Niehus, G. Comsa: Surf. Sci. 140, 18 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 7.133
    F.M. Chua, Y. Kuk, P.J. Silverman: Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 386 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 7.134
    J.A. Stroscio, M. Persson, W. Ho: Phys. Rev. B 33, 6758 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 7.135
    D.T. Ling, J.N. Miller, D.L. Weissman, P. Pianetta, P.M. Stefan, I. Lindau, W.E. Spicer: Surf. Sci. 95, 89 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 7.136
    D.T. Ling, J.N. Miller, D.L. Weissman, P. Pianetta, L.I. Johansson, I. Lindau, W.E. Spicer: Surf. Sci. 92, 350 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 7.137
    DJ. Couiman, J. Wintterlin, R.J. Behm, G. Ertl: Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1761 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 7.138
    N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin: Solid State Physics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1976)Google Scholar
  152. 7.139
    J.C. Slater, G.F. Koster: Phys. Rev. 94, 1498 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 7.140
    W.A. Harrison: Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids (Freeman, San Francisco 1980)Google Scholar
  154. 7.141
    V. Dose: Surf. Sci. Rep. 5, 337 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 7.142
    F. Bertel: Appl. Phys. A 53, 356 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 7.143
    HJ. Freund, M. Neumann: Appl. Phys. A 47, 3 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 7.144
    H. Kuhlenbeck, M. Neumann, H.J. Freund: Surf. Sci. 173, 194 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 7.145
    H. Kuhlenbeck, H.B. Saalfeld, U. Buskotte, M. Neumann, H.J. Freund, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. B 39, 3475 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 7.146
    E.W. Plummer: Surf. Sci. 152/153, 162 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 7.147
    T.-C. Chiang, J.A. Knapp, M. Aono, D.E. Eastman: Phys. Rev. B 21, 3513 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 7.147a
    D. Straub, M. Skibowski, F.J. Himpsel: Phys. Rev. B 32, 5239 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 7.147b
    For data on Si see L.S.O. Johansson, P.E.S. Persson, U.O. Karlsson, R.I.G. Uhrberg: Phys. Rev. B 42, 8991 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 7.147c
    Those for Ge are found in X.H. Chen, W. Ranke, E. Schröder-Bergen: Phys. Rev. B 42, 7429 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 7.148
    H.J. Levinson, F. Greuter, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. B 27, 727 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 7.149
    N.W. Ashcroft: Phil. Mag. 8, 2055 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 7.150
    J.R. Anderson, S.S. Lane: Phys. Rev. B 2, 298 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 7.150a
    Shih-Kuei Ma, K.W.-K. Shung: Phys. Rev. 49, 10617 (1995). Calculating the angle-resolved PE spectra of Al(001), taking into account surface, many-body and band-structure effects. The conclusion is that the conventional one-electron picture works for simple metals, provided that these effects are treated properlyGoogle Scholar
  168. 7.151
    I.W. Lyo, E.W. Plummer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1558 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 7.152
    K.W.K. Shung, G.D. Mahan: Phys. Rev. B 38, 3856 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 7.152a
    S.K. Ma, K.W.K. Shung: Phys. Rev. B 49, 10617 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 7.153
    F.J. Himpsel: Adv. Phys. 32, 1 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 7.154
    CS. Wang, B.M. Klein: Phys. Rev. B 24, 3393 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 7.155
    D. Straub, M. Skibowski, F.J. Himpsel: Phys. Rev. B 32, 5239 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 7.156
    S. Hüfner, G.K. Wertheim, J.H. Wernick: Phys. Rev. B 8, 4511 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 7.157
    S. Hüfner: In Photoemission in Solids II, ed. by L. Ley, M. Cardona, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.27 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979) Chap.3Google Scholar
  176. 7.158
    H. Höchst, S. Hüfner, A. Goldmann: Z. Physik B 26, 133 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 7.159
    P. Steiner, S. Hüfner, A.J. Freeman, D. Wang: Solid State Commun. 44, 619 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 7.160
    L.F. Wagner, Z. Hussain, CS. Fadley, R.J. Baird: Solid State Commun. 21, 453 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 7.161
    S. Hüfner, G.K. Wertheim, J.H. Wernick: Solid State Commun. 17, 1585 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 7.162
    J. Friedel: Can. J. Phys. 34, 1190 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 7.163
    J. Friedel: J. Phys. Radium 19, 573 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 7.164
    J. Friedel: Suppl. Nuovo Cimento VII, 287 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 7.165
    P.W. Anderson: Phys. Rev. 124, 41 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 7.166
    H. Höchst, P. Steiner, S. Hüfner: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 6, 159 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 7.167
    P. Steiner, H. Höchst, W. Steffen, S. Hüfner: Z. Physik B 38, 191 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 7.168
    P. Steiner, H. Höchst, S. Hüfner: J. Phys. F 7, L105 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 7.169
    H. Höchst, P. Steiner, S. Hüfner: Z. Phys. B 38, 201 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 7.170
    D.v.d. Marel, G.A. Sawatzky, F.U. Hillebrecht: Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 206 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 7.171
    R.G. Jordan, W. Drube, D. Straub, F.J. Himpsel: Phys. Rev. B 33, 5280 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 7.172
    L. Wallden: Phil. Mag. 21, 571 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 7.173
    H.P. Meyers, L. Wallden, A. Karlson: Phil. Mag. 18, 725 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 7.174
    L. Ley, M. Cardona, R.A. Pollack: In Topics in Appl. Phys. 27, 11 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 7.175
    A. Goldmann: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 81, 9 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 7.176
    N.J. Shevchik, J. Tejeda, M. Cardona: Phys. Rev. B 9, 2627 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 7.177
    L. Ley, R.A. Pollak, F.R. McFeely, S.P. Kowalczyk, D.A. Shirley: Phys. Rev. B 9, 600 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 7.178
    A.B. Pippard: Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 176 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 7.179
    S.K. Shinha: Phys. Rev. 143, 422 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hüfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations