Valence Orbitals in Simple Molecules and Insulating Solids

  • Stefan Hüfner
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 82)


It has been shown in the preceding chapters that PES measures the binding energies of electrons in an atom, a molecule or a solid. These measured binding energies, however, are not single-particle energies, but energies which contain many-body relaxation contributions. The energy levels of atoms, molecules and solids, at about 10–20 eV below the vacuum level are those which are responsible for chemistry in the widest sense and thus determine to a considerable degree the appearance of our environment. The study of valence orbitals has therefore always played a prominent role in PES. In this chapter we will discuss the kind of information that can be obtained from PES on atoms, molecules and insulating solids. Note that besides molecules in their ordinary state, it is also possible to study them as adsorbates on a surface. In addition, relatively short-lived molecules, so-called transient species, have also been investigated by this technique and their orbital energies have been determined.


Valence Band Fermi Energy Hydrogen Fluoride Mott Insulator Vibrational Structure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hüfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

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