Cell Surface Actions of Steroids: A Complementary Mechanism for Regulation of Spermatogenesis?
The question about the concentration of androgen required for maintenance of spermatogenesis has not yet been solved (Rommerts 1988a). Under normal physiological conditions androgen concentrations in the testis are more than 20-fold higher than in peripheral organs. However, results of various studies show that spermatogenesis can also proceed at approximately 20% of the normal testicular an-drogen level although the production of spermatozoa is diminished (Sun et al. 1989). In this situation, these reduced local androgen concentrations are still several fold higher than the normal peripheral concentrations. Irrespective of the exact minimal level of testosterone required for maintenance of spermatogenesis (with or without the support of FSH), it is difficult to understand easily why androgen-sensitive cells in the testis are triggered in a manner differing from that of other androgen target cells (Sun et al. 1989). Of special relevance to this question is the current opinion that androgen action in various target cells is mediated by only one receptor (Brinkmann et al. 1992).
KeywordsAndrogen Receptor Sertoli Cell GABAA Receptor Germinal Cell Testicular Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Blok LJ, Bartlett JMS, Bolt-de Vries J, Themmen APN, Brinkmann AO, Weinbauer GF, Nieschlag E, Grootegoed JA (1992) Int J Androl, in pressGoogle Scholar
- Brann DW, Putnam CD, Mahesh VB (1990) gamma-Aminobutyric AcidA receptors mediate 3-hydroxy-5-pregnan-20-one-induced gonadotropin secretion. Endocrinology 126: 1854–1859Google Scholar
- Brinkmann AO, Jenster G, Kuiper GGJM, Ris-Stalpers C, van Laar JH, Faber PW, Trapman J (1992) Structure and function of the human androgen receptor. In: Nieschlag E, Habenicht OF (eds) Spermatogenesis - fertilization - contraception: Molecular, cellular and endocrine events in the testis ( 1992 ) Springer Verlag Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
- Dulka JG, Stacey NE, Sorensen PW, Van der Kraal(GJ (1987) A steroid sex pheromone synchronizes male-female spawning readiness in goldfish. Nature 325: 251–253Google Scholar
- Erdö SL, Joo F, Wolff JR (1989) Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate decarboxylase in the rat oviduct and ovary: Further evidence for non-neural GABA systems. Cell Tissue Res 255: 431–434Google Scholar
- Finidori-Lepicord J, Schordevet-Statkine S, Hanoune J, Baulieu EE (1981) Steroid hormone as a regulatory agent of adenylate cyclase. Inhibition by progesterone of the membrane bound enzyme in Xenopus Leavis oocytes. Nature 292: 255–256Google Scholar
- Hansson V, Ritzen EM, French FS, Nayfeh SN (1975) Androgen transport and receptor mechanisms in testis and epididymis. In: Greep RO, Astwood EB (eds) Handbook of Physiology, Sect VII Endocrinology, Vol V Male Reproductive System. Waverley Press, Baltimore, pp 173–201Google Scholar
- Knobil E, Neill JD (1988) The physiology of reproduction. Raven Press,New York, pp 753–975Google Scholar
- Miura T, Yamauchi K, Takahashi H, Nagahama Y (1991a) Hormonal induction of all stages of spermatogenesis in vitro in the male Japanese eel ( Anguilla japonica ). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 5774–5778Google Scholar
- Miura T, Yamauchi K, Takahashi H, Nagahama Y (199 lb) Involvement of steroid hormones in gonadotropin-induced testicular maturation in male Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Biomed Res 12: 241–248Google Scholar
- Pasmanik M, Callard GV (1988) A high abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: Characteristics and seasonal changes. Endocrinology 123: 1162–1171Google Scholar
- Rauh JJ, Lummis SCR, Sattelle DB (1990) Pharmacological and biochemical properties of insect GABA receptors. Trends Pharmac Sciences 11: 325329Google Scholar
- Rommerts FFG (1988b) Testomania. In: Cooke BA, Sharpe RM (eds) The Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis, Raven Press, New York, vol 50, pp 1–10Google Scholar
- Rommerts FFG, Krüger BCh, Grootegoed JA, Molen van der HJ (1979) Reversible interaction between androgen binding protein and testicular macromolecules causing inhibition of androgen binding activity. Steroids 33: 659673Google Scholar
- Rommerts FFG, Krüger BCh, Grootegoed JA, Molen HJ van der (1980) Modulation of the binding activity of androgen binding protein by testicular macromolecules and testosterone. In: Steinberger A, Steinberger E (eds) Testicular development, structure, and function. Raven Press, New York, pp 331–336Google Scholar
- Segal J (1990) In vivo effect of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine on calcium uptake in several tissues in the rat: Evidence for a physiological role for calcium as the first messenger for the prompt action of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane. Endocrinology 127: 17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shepherd GM, Firestein S (1991) Toward a pharmacology of odor receptors and the processing of odor images. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 39: 583592Google Scholar