Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

  • B. A. Sexton
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 23)

Abstract

The scanning tunnelling microscope, or STM, has emerged over the last few years as a fascinating new technique for examining conducting solid surfaces with high resolution [10.1–5]. A sharpened metal wire is brought close enough to the surface so that the electrons “tunnel” across the narrow gap (0.5–1.5 nm). A small bias potential (2 mV-2 V) provides the necessary potential difference for tunnelling to occur. As a result of the exponential dependence of tunnelling current on separation, the tip height above the surface can be kept constant by using a feedback controller. The tunnel current is monitored and applied to a “PI” controller which in turn drives a piezoelectric arm attached to the tip. By scanning another set of piezoelectric arms, the tip can be rastered in an XY plane whilst simultaneously following the surface corrugations. In this way, a three-dimensional image of the surface can be formed by plotting z(x, y). The imaging is non-destructive since the tip does not normally touch the surface during the scans.

Keywords

Gallium Arsenide Tunnel Current Compact Disc Lead Dioxide Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 10.1
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel: Phys. Rev. lett. 49, 57 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 10.2
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer: Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 10.3
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel: Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 10.4
    P.K. Hansma, J. Tersoff: J. Appl. Phys. 61(2), RI (1986)Google Scholar
  5. 10.5
    C.F. Quate: Physics Today (August 1986) p.26Google Scholar
  6. 10.6
    P. Lustenberger, H. Rohrer, R. Christoph, H. Siegenthaler: J. Electroanal. Chem. 243, 225 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 10.7
    R. Sonnenfeld, P.K. Hansma. Science 232, 211 (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 10.8
    W. Baumeister: Ultramicroscopy 25, 103 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.9
    Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, ed. by R.M. Feenstra, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2), 259–556 (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.10
    S. Hosaki, S. Hosoki, K. Takata, K. Horiuchi, N. Natsuaki: Appl. Phys. Lett. 53 (6), 487 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.11
    B.A. Sexton, G.F. Cotterill. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7, 2734 (1989)Google Scholar
  12. 10.12
    L. Vasquez, A. Bartolome, R. Garcia, A. Buendia, A.M. Baro: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1286 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 10.13
    C.A. Lang, J.K.H. Horber, T.W. Hansch, W.M. Heckl, H. Mohwald: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6 (2), 368 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 10.14
    Xian-Liang Wu, C.M. Lieber: J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5556 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 10.15
    R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 1303 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 10.16
    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, ed. by N. Garcia, Surf. Sci. 181, 1–412 (1987)Google Scholar
  17. 10.17
    IBM J. Res. Dev. 30, Nos.4 and 5, 353–572 (1986)Google Scholar
  18. 10.18
    J. Simmons: J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1915 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 10.
    Modem Piezoelectric Ceramics, Vemitron Piezoelectric Division, 232 Forbes Road, Bedford, Ohio 44146, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. 10.20
    Piezoelectric Ceramics, J. Van Randeraat, R.E. Setterington ( Mullard Ltd., London 1974 )Google Scholar
  21. 10.21
    G. Binnig, D.P.E. Smith: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1688 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 10.22
    E.W. Muller, T.T. Tsong: Field Ion Microscopy ( Elsevier, New York 1969 )Google Scholar
  23. 10.23
    H. Liu, F. Fan, C.W. Lin, AJ. Bard: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 3838 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 10.
    B.A. Sexton: Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  25. 10.25
    S. Park, C.F. Quate: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58 (11), 2010 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 10.26
    M. Salmeron, D.S. Kaufman, B. Marchon, S. Ferrer: Appl. Surf. Sci. 28, 279 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 10.27
    M. Salmeron, B. Marchon, S. Ferrer, D.S. Kaufman: Phys. Rev. B35, 3036 (1987)Google Scholar
  28. 10.28
    V.M. Hallmark, S. Chiang, J.F. Rabolt, J.D. Swalen, R.J. Wilson: Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2879 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 10.29
    R.C. Jaklevic, L. Elie: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 120 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 10.30
    G. Binnig, H. Fuchs, Ch. Gerber, E. Stoll, E. Tosatti: Europhys. Leu. 1, 31 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 10.31
    Sang-il Park, C.F. Quate: Appl. Phys. Leu. 48, 112 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 10.32
    R. Sonnenfeld, P.K. Hansma: Science 232, 211 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 10.33
    E. Ganz, K. Sattler, J. Clarke: Phys. Rev. Leu. 60, 1856 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 10.34
    J. Tersoff: Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 440 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 10.35
    B.A. Sexton, G.F. Cotterill, S. Fletcher, M.D. Home: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8 (1), 544 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 10.36
    S. Okayama, M. Komuro, W. Mizutani, H. Tokumoto, M. Okano, K. Shimizu, Y. Kobayashi, F. Matsumoto, S. Waikiyama, M. Shigeno, F. Sakai, S. Fujiwara, O. Kitamura, M. Ono, K. Kajimura: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2), 440 (1988)Google Scholar
  37. 10.
    WJ. Kaiser, L.D. Bell, M.H. Hecht, F.J. Grunthaner: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2) 519 (1988)Google Scholar
  38. 10.38
    R.S. Becker, J.A. Goluvchenko, E.G. McRae, B.S. Swartentruber: Phys. Rev. Leu. 55, 2028 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 10.39
    Th. Berghaus, A. Brodde, H. Neddermeyer, St. Tosch: Surf. Sci. 184, 273 (1987)Google Scholar
  40. 10.40
    R.J. Hamers, R.M. Tromp, J.E. Demuth: Phys. Rev. B 34, 5343 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 10.41
    E.J. Van Loenen, J.E. Demuth, R.M. Tromp, R.J. Hamers: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 373 (1987)Google Scholar
  42. 10.42
    R.J. Wilson, S. Chiang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 369 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 10.43
    J.A. Stroscio, R.M. Feenstra, A.P. Fein: Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2579 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 10.44
    J.A. Kubby, J.E. Griffith, R.S. Becker, J.S. Vickers: Phys. Rev. B36, 6079 (1987)Google Scholar
  45. 10.45
    R.M. Feenstra, J.A. Stroscio, J. Tersoff, A.P. Fein: Phys. Rev. Leu. 58, 1192 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 10.46
    J. Tersoff, D.R. Hamann: Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1998; Phys. Rev. B 31, 805 (1985)Google Scholar
  47. 10.47
    R. Wolkow, Ph. Avouris: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1049 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 10.48
    G. Binnig, C.F. Quate, Ch. Gerber: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 10.49
    R. Sonnenfeld, B.C. Schardt: Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1172 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 10.50
    P. Lustenberger, H. Rohrer, R. Christoph, H. Siegenthaler: J. Electroanal. Chem. 243, 225 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 10.51
    S. Morita, I. Otsuka, T. Okada, H. Yokoyama, T. Iwasaki, N. Mikoshiba: Japan J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1853 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 10.52
    M.HJ. Hottenhuis, M.A.J. Mickers, J.W. Gerritsen, J.P. Van der Eerden: Surf. Sci. 206, 259 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 10.53
    M.A. Baro, G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Stoll, A. Baratoff, F. Salvan: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1304 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 10.54
    H. Ohtani, P.J. Wilson, S. Chiang, C.M. Mate: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2398 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 10.55
    J.A. Stroscio, R.M. Feenstra, A.P. Fein: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1668 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 10.56
    U. Staufer, R. Wiesendanger, L. Eng, L. Rosenthaler, H.R. Hidber, H.J. Guntherodt, N. Garcia: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2), 537 (1988)Google Scholar
  57. 10.
    E.E. Ehrichs, R.M. Silver, A.L. DeLozanne: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2), 540 (1988)Google Scholar
  58. 10.
    Unpublished results, this laboratoryGoogle Scholar
  59. 10.59
    G. Travaglini, H. Rohrer, M. Amrein, H. Gross: Surf. Sci. 181, 380 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 10.60
    M. Amrein, A. Stasiak, H. Gross, E. Stoll, G. Travaglini: Science 240, 514 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 10.61
    R. Guckenberger, C. Kosslinger, W. Baumeister: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6(2), 383 (1988)Google Scholar
  62. 10.62
    T. Sleator, R. Tycko: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1418 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Sexton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations