• A. R. Smith
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 1)


Terrestrial (rarely epiphytic) ferns with branched or unbranched stems, these long- to short-creeping, suberect, or erect and trunk-like, bearing scales at apex, these entire, usually pubescent along margin and sometimes surface, basally attached. Vascular system a radially symmetrical dictyostele. Petioles non-articulate, scaly at base, with two lateral pneumatic lines along the length, in cross-section nearly always with two hippocampus-shaped vascular strands at base, these fusing into a U-shaped strand distally. Lamina simple to pinnate to most often pinnate + pinnatifid, catadromous, infrequently twice-pinnate or more divided (but never with basitonically enlarged pinnae), monomorphic or less often dimorphic. Pinnae usually numerous, gradually reduced distally into a confluent, lobed, apical segment, sometimes with a conform apical division. Indument of lamina and axes almost always of hairs, these variously unicellular or multicellular, acicular, hooked, furcate, or stellate (Iwatsuki 1962), sometimes also with sessile or stalked glands, occasionally also with scales. Rachis adaxially grooved, this groove not continuous with adaxial grooves of costae. Aerophores often present at bases of pinnae abaxially, these swollen or elongate. Veins simple or less often forked, reaching the margin or not, ± cdistinctly catadromously pinnately arranged in ultimate segments; free, connivent below the sinus, or united to form one to many regular areoles between costa and pinna margin, then with (usually only) ex-current free veinlets. Sporangia nearly always in discrete sori, these orbicular to occasionally elongate, dorsal (occasionally submarginal) on the veins, with a short to long stalk three cells in cross-section, with a well-developed vertical annulus, dehiscing by a horizontal slit, maturation mixed. Indusia present or absent, if present then reniform or infrequently athyrioid, often very reduced and obscured in mature sori. Spores 64 (infrequently 32) per sporangium, nearly always bilateral with a monolete scar (tetrahedral with trilete scar in Trigonospora),non-chlorophyllous; perispore variously ornamented (reticulate, winged, spinulose); gametophytes surficial, cordate, often with marginal glands or hairs; x=27, 29–36.


Asia South Leptosporangiate Fern Sessile Gland East Asia South Nomenclatural Combination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

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  • A. R. Smith

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