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Motivation und Emotion

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Physiologie des Menschen

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Zusammenfassung

1954 untersuchten James Olds und sein Student Peter Milner die aktivierende Wirkung von elektrischer Reizung der Formatio reticularis der Ratte. Eine der Reizelektroden verfehlte ihr Ziel und endete vermutlich im Hypothalamus. Olds beschrieb, welch seltsames Verhalten das Tier plötzlich bei Reizung zeigte:,,lch reizte mit einem kurzen 60 Hz Sinusimpulsstrom immer dann, wenn das Tier in eine Ecke des Käfigs lief (Olds wollte sicher sein, daß die Reizung für das Tier nicht unangenehm ist). Das Tier vermied die Ecke aber nicht, sondern kam nach einer kurzen Pause sofort in die Käfigecke zurück, nach der erneuten Reizung lief es sogar noch schneller dorthin. Nach der dritten elektrischen Reizung war klar, daß das Tier zweifellos mehr Reizung wollte“ [19]. Diese Zufallsbeobachtung bedeutete die Entdeckung eines „positiven Verstärkungszentrums“ oder, wie Olds es euphorisch nannte, des „Zentrums der Freude“. Damit war die neurobiologische Grundlage eines zentralen Begriffs der Motivationspsychologie gefunden und ein wichtiger Schritt zum Verständnis der Triebkräfte menschlichen Verhaltens getan.

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© 1997 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Birbaumer, N., Jänig, W. (1997). Motivation und Emotion. In: Schmidt, R.F., Thews, G. (eds) Physiologie des Menschen. Springer-Lehrbuch. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-00485-2_9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-00485-2_9

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