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January 1, 2019 marked the 20th anniversary of the introduction of the Euro. On this day, 11 members of the European Union (EU) introduced the Euro as a book currency (fiat currency), three years later the Euro cash followed. Since then, the Euro area has grown to 19 member states. This volume is a stocktaking, which points out the functional deficiencies of the Euro currency union. It provides background information and context for the Euro crisis and crisis response policy, which either did not play a role in daily politics or were quickly forgotten.

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Correspondence to Dirk Meyer .

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© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature

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Meyer, D. (2022). Introduction. In: European Union and Monetary Union in Permanent Crisis I. Springer, Wiesbaden.

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