The remainder of this doctoral thesis is structured as follows: To answer the aforementioned research questions, this thesis comprises three separate studies that focus on MNCs’ global branding and e-commerce firms’ internationalization processes. The three studies are illustrated in detail in Part II, Part III, and Part IV. Study 1, Study 2, and Study 3 are organized according to the following structure, irrespective of the applied theory or methodology:

  • Introduction

  • Conceptual framework and hypothesis development

  • Empirical study, including sample design, measurement, method, and results

  • Discussion with theoretical and managerial implications

  • Limitations and directions for further research

To address the thesis’s general research questions, a summary is provided in Chapter 5. The thesis concludes with an outline of further research objectives.