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Der Aufstieg von arXiv: Netzwerkeffekte und wissenschaftliche Kommunikation

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Part of the Geschichte des digitalen Zeitalters book series (GEDIZ)

Zusammenfassung

Arianna Borrelli wendet sich in ihrem Beitrag Selbsthistorisierungen wissenschaftlicher Akteure zu und stösst dabei auf die Paradoxie, dass hier eine computerbasierte Utopie wissenschaftlicher Kommunikation formuliert wurde, die sich selbst als „Archiv“ beschreibt. ArXiv bietet freien und kostenlosen Zugang zu Artikeln, die von den Autorinnen und Autoren selbst hochgeladen werden. Erkenntnisse können schnell veröffentlicht werden, weil kein Peer Review stattgefunden hat. In den Begleittexten zu ArXiv entdeckt Borrelli ein Selbstbild, das den Austausch in der Wissenschaft technisch idealisiert, indem es eine Utopie beschwört und ihre Verwirklichung als moralischen Imperativ darstellt. ArXiV wird seit 1991 in der Physik, Mathematik, Informatik und in einigen Bereichen der Biologie, der Ingenieurwissenschaften und des Finanzwesens genutzt, um Forschungsergebnisse zu zirkulieren und Netzwerkeffekte anzuregen. Seit Jahrzehnten mobilisieren die Betreiber ein Gegenbild: die elitäre Fachzeitschrift. „ArXiv scheint die technologische Utopie eines kostenlosen, globalen, transparenten und demokratischen Wissensaustausches zu verkörpern, die bereits in den 1960er- und ‘70er-Jahren mit dem Aufkommen von Computern in Verbindung stand.“ Borrellis Analyse fokussiert auf die Begründungen, die den Betrieb von ArXiv und einer Vielzahl früherer analoger und digitaler Preprint-Verteiler seit mittlerweile fünfzig Jahren begleiten. Die Beschwörungen des Epochemachenden, so Borrelli, verengen dabei den Reflexionsraum wissenschaftlicher Kommunikation. Borrelli kritisiert abschliessend, dass ArXiv 2004 Änderungen eingeführt hat, die etablierte Gruppen und Forschungsrichtungen bevorzugen und die zwischen wissenschaftlichen und unwissenschaftlichen Beiträgen unterscheiden.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Garisto, Daniel: Preprints Make Inroads Outside of Physics, in: APS News 28 (2019), S. 9; Morris, Leslie: Ginsparg, Ph.D.’81, ArXiv Founder, Receives Physics Award, in: Cornell Chronicle. January 8 2020. Verfügbar unter: http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2020/01/ginsparg-phd-81-arxiv-founder-receives-physics-award. Weitere Preise sind in Ginspargs Wikipedia-Antrag gelistet, verfügbar unter: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Ginsparg.

  2. 2.

    Moy, Timothy: Culture, Technology, and the Cult of Tech in the 1970s, in: Bailey, Beth L.; Farber, David R. (Hg.): America in the Seventies, Lawrence 2004, S. 208–227.

  3. 3.

    Garisto 2019; Ginsparg, Paul: It Was Twenty Years Ago Today… arXiv:1108.2700 August 14, 2011. Verfügbar unter: http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.2700; Kling, Rob; Lisa B. Spector; Joanna Fortuna: The Real Stakes of Virtual Publishing: The Transformation of E-Biomed into PubMed Central, in: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55 (2004) 2, S. 127–148.

  4. 4.

    Haque, Asif-ul; Ginsparg, Paul: Positional Effects on Citation and Readership in ArXiv, in: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (2009) 11, S. 2203–2218.

  5. 5.

    Ginsparg 2011, S. 9.

  6. 6.

    ArXiv „Code of Conduct“. Verfügbar unter: https://arxiv.org/help/policies/code_of_conduct.

  7. 7.

    „At the most general level, platforms are digital infrastructures that enable two or more groups to interact“ (Srnicek, Nick: Platform Capitalism, Cambridge, 2017, S. 43); „In the world of platforms, different types of users – some of them producers, some of them consumers, and some of them people who may play both roles at various times – connect and conduct interactions with one another using the resources provided by the platform“ (Parker, Geoffrey; Van Alstyne, Marshall; Choudary, Sangeet Paul: Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy and How to Make Them Work for You, New York 2016, S. 6); „Platforms [are] sites of content containment, distribution, and management“ (Steinberg, Marc: The Platform Economy. How Japan Transformed the Consumer Internet, Minneapolis 2019, S. 70).

  8. 8.

    „Digital platforms produce and are reliant on ‚network effects‘: the more numerous the users who use a platform, the more valuable that platform becomes for everyone else“ (Srnicek 2017, S. 45); „Network effects refers to the impact that the number of users of a platform has on the value created for each user. Positive network effects refers to the ability of a large, well-managed platform community to produce significant value for each user of the platform“ (Parker et al. 2016, S. 17).

  9. 9.

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Brooks, Travis C.: Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics, in: Scientometrics 84 (2010) 2, S. 345–355.

  10. 10.

    Zur Entwicklung von Fachzeitschriften siehe: Andriesse, Cornelis Dirk: Dutch Messengers: A History of Science Publishing, 1930–1980, Leiden 2008; Fyfe, Aileen et al.: Untangling Academic Publishing: A History of the Relationship Between Commercial Interests, Academic Prestige and the Circulation of Research, Zenodo (2017, May 25). Verfügbar unter: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.546100; Lalli, Roberto: ‘Dirty Work’, but Someone Has to Do It: Howard P. Robertson and the Refereeing Practices of Physical Review in the 1930s, in: Notes and Records of the Royal Society 70 (2016) 2, S. 151–174.

  11. 11.

    Phelps, Ralph H.; Herling, John P.: Alternatives to the Scientific Periodical: A Report and Bibliography, in: Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 14 (1960) 2, S. 61–75.

  12. 12.

    Zuckerman, Harriet; Merton, Robert K.: Patterns of Evaluation in Science: Institutionalisation, Structure and Functions of the Referee System, in: Minerva 9 (1971) 1, S. 66–100, hier S. 76.

  13. 13.

    Für die historischen Akteure verwende ich im Folgenden das generische Maskulinum, weil die Quellen keine eindeutigen Schlüsse über die Teilnahme von Frauen an den beschriebenen Entwicklungen von Preprints und e-Preprints erlauben. Angesichts der Unterrepräsentation von Frauen in den physikalischen Disziplinen ist dies zwar möglich, aber nicht gesichert, insbesondere für die USA, die eine zentrale Rolle bei der hier dargestelllten Ereignissen spielten. Dort machten Frauen noch 1988 nut 3 % der Mitiglieder physikalischer Fakultäten aus (Rossiter, Margaret W.: A Twisted Tale Women in the Physical Sciences in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, in The Cambridge History of Science, vol. 5, Cambridge 2002, S. 54‒71, hier S. 69). Die explizite Nennumg von Frauen hätte daher den falschen Eindruck erwecken können, dass positive Belege einer solchen Beteiligung vorliegen würden.

  14. 14.

    Folgender Überblick basiert auf: Cobb, Matthew: The Prehistory of Biology Preprints: A Forgotten Experiment from the 1960s, in: PLOS Biology 15 (2017) 11: e2003995; Fyfe u. a. 2017; Rosenfeld, Arnold u. a.: Preprints in Particles and Fields. SLAC-PUB-0710. Stanford, CA 1970; Wykle, Stacy: Enclaves of Anarchy: Preprint Sharing, 1940–1990, in: Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 51 (2014) 1, S. 1–10.

  15. 15.

    Folgender Überblick über die Geschichte der IEGs basiert auf: Albritton, Errett: The Information Exchange Group – an Experiment in Communication, Bericht vom NIH, Washington D.C. 1965; Cobb 2017; Wykle 2014.

  16. 16.

    Moravcsik, Michael: Private and Public Communications in Physics, in: Physics Today 18 (1965), S. 23–26.

  17. 17.

    Moravcsik 1965, S. 24.

  18. 18.

    Cobb 2017; Rosenfeld et al. 1970.

  19. 19.

    Cobb 2017, S. 7.

  20. 20.

    O’Connell, Heath B: Physicists Thriving with Paperless Publishing, SLAC-PUB-8357, February 2000.

  21. 21.

    Andriesse 2008, S. 99‒137.

  22. 22.

    Rosenfeld et al. 1970, S. 6.

  23. 23.

    Report of the APS Task Force on Electronic Information Systems 1991, o. S. Verfügbar unter: https://journals.aps.org/reports/lokenrep.html.

  24. 24.

    Folgender Überblick basiert auf: Ceruzzi, Paul E.: The Internet before Commercialization, in: Ders.; Aspray, William (Hg.): The Internet and American Business, Cambridge MA 2010, S. 9–43.

  25. 25.

    Ginsparg, Paul: The Global Village Pioneers, in: Learned Publishing 22 (2009) 2, S. 95–100, hier S. 95 f.

  26. 26.

    APS Task Force 1991.

  27. 27.

    APS Task Force 1991.

  28. 28.

    Über frühe Preprint-Server siehe: Ginsparg 2009; Israelsson, Ann-Sofi, Mogens Sandfær, Stephan Schwarz: The Global Village Come True. High-Tech Information Network in High Energy Physics, in: Proceedings of the IATUL Conferences 1991. Verfügbar unter: https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iatul/1991/papers/26; Jackson, Allyn: From Preprints to E-Prints: The Rise of Electronic Preprint Servers in Mathematics, in: Notices of the American Mathematical Society 49 (2002), S. 23–31; Thompson, Sara R.: A Tale of Two Worlds, in: Science & Technology Libraries 19 (2000) 2, S. 43–51.

  29. 29.

    Ginsparg 2009, S. 95.

  30. 30.

    Ginsparg 2011, S. 3–4.

  31. 31.

    Ginsparg 2009, S. 95.

  32. 32.

    Barbrook, Richard, Andy Cameron: The Californian Ideology, in: Science as Culture 6 (January 1996), S. 44–72; Moy 2004; Turner, Fred: From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, Chicago 2006.

  33. 33.

    Kaiser, David: How the Hippies Saved Physics. Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival, New York 2011, hier S. 265–271.

  34. 34.

    APS Task Force 1991; Israelsson et al. 1991.

  35. 35.

    Mermin, David: Publishing in Computopia, in: Physics Today 44 (1991) 5, S. 9–11.

  36. 36.

    Mermin 1991, S. 9.

  37. 37.

    Mermin, David: What’s Wrong in Computopia?, in: Physics Today 45, 4 (1992) 4, S. 9–11.

  38. 38.

    Ginsparg, Paul: First Steps Towards Electronic Research Communication, in: Computers in Physics 8 (1994) 4, S. 390–396, hier S. 390.

  39. 39.

    Ginsparg 2011, S. 5.

  40. 40.

    Hurd, Julie M.: 1996. High Energy Physics, in: Crawford, Susan Y.; Hurd, Susan Y.; Weller, Ann C. (Hg.): From Print to Electronic. The Transformation of Scientific Communication, Medford NJ 1996, S. 65–76, S. 71; Jackson 2002.

  41. 41.

    Jackson 2002, S. 28.

  42. 42.

    Srnicek 2017, S. 95.

  43. 43.

    Ceruzzi 2010.

  44. 44.

    Glanz, James: The World of Science Becomes a Global Village. Archive Opens a New Realm of Research. The New York Times, May 1, 2001, sec. Science. Verfügbar unter: https://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/01/science/world-science-becomes-global-village-archive-opens-new-realm-research.html. Der Artikel beschrieb Ginspargs LANL-Server.

  45. 45.

    Vgl. die arXiv-Statistiken, verfügbar unter: https://arxiv.org/help/stats/2019_by_area/index.

  46. 46.

    Kling et al. 2004.

  47. 47.

    Feder, Toni: Ginsparg Takes Electronic Preprint Archive to Cornell, in: Physics Today 54 (2001) 9, S. 26 f.

  48. 48.

    Feder 2001, S. 26.

  49. 49.

    Vgl. arXiv-Statistiken; Galisto 2019.

  50. 50.

    Folgende Bemerkung basieren auf: Borrelli, Arianna: Wissenschaftsgeschichte zwischen Digitalität und Digitalisierung, in: Zeitschrift für digitale Geisteswissenschaften (2018). Verfügbar unter: http://dx.doi.org/10.17175/sb003_001; Gunnarsdóttir, Kristrún: Scientific Journal Publications. On the Role of Electronic Preprint Exchange in the Distribution of Scientific Literature, in: Social Studies of Science 35 (2005) 4, S. 549–579; Merali, Zeeya: ArXiv Rejections Lead to Spat over Screening Process, in: Nature News, 2016. Verfügbar unter: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2016.19267; Ritson, Sophie: ‚Crackpots‘ and ‚Active Researchers‘: The Controversy over Links between ArXiv and the Scientific Blogosphere, in: Social Studies of Science 46 (2016) 4, S. 607–628.

  51. 51.

    Ginsparg 2011, S. 9; Ginsparg, Paul: Automated Screening: ArXiv Screens Spot Fake Papers, in: Nature 508 (2014), S. 44.

  52. 52.

    „While often presenting themselves as empty spaces for others to interact on, [platforms] in fact embody a politics. The rules of product and service development, as well, as marketplace interactions, are set by the platform owner“ (Srnicek 2017, S. 46 f.).

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Borrelli, A. (2022). Der Aufstieg von arXiv: Netzwerkeffekte und wissenschaftliche Kommunikation. In: Wichum, R., Zetti, D. (eds) Zur Geschichte des digitalen Zeitalters. Geschichte des digitalen Zeitalters. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-34506-8_9

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