Skip to main content

Platform Work as a New Form of Employment: Implications for Labour and Social Law

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
New Forms of Employment

Abstract

With the present article the author seeks to answer what is really new about platform work. In particular, the article reflects the new business model of platform work, the difference between algorithmic control and so-called ‘informational’ control, similarities and disparities in control mechanisms used in dependent employment and in platform work. The key question addressed is whether with platform work (apart from personal and economic dependence) a new kind of dependence has emerged in relation to platform providers or clients. Therefore, on the one hand, features of dependence of platform workers are compared with the situation in other employment categories. On the other hand, court decisions concerning the employment classification of platform workers (taxi drivers and couriers) are analyzed. The article concludes with proposals concerning the modification of employment classification criteria.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

eBook
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Bibliography

  • Acquier, A. 2018. Uberization meets organizational theory. Platform capitalism and the rebirth of the putting-out system. In Cambridge handbook of the law of the sharing economy, eds. N. Davidson, M. Finck, and J. Infranca, 13–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aleksynska, M., A. Bastrakova, and N. Kharchenko. 2018. Work on digital labour platforms in Ukraine: Issues and policy perspectives. Geneva: International Labour Office (ILO).

    Google Scholar 

  • Ales, E. 2018. Protecting work in the digital transformation: Rethinking the typological approach in the intrinsically triangular relationship perspective. In Work in digital and smart organizations, eds. E. Ales, Y. Curzi, T. Fabbri, O. Rymkevich, I. Senatori, and G. Solinas, 11–28. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Aloisi, A. 2016. Commoditized workers: Case study research on labour law issues arising from a set of ‘on-demand/gig economy’ platforms. Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal 37(3):653–690.

    Google Scholar 

  • Applegate, L. 1994. Managing in an information age: Transforming the organization for the 1990s. In Transforming Organisations with information technology, eds. R. Baskerville, O. Ngwenyama, S. Smithson, and J. DeGross. Proceedings of the IFIP WG8.2 Working Conference, 15–94. Amsterdam: Elsvier Science B.V.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose, W. 2017. Von Bismarck zu Crowdwork: Über die Reichweite der Sozialversicherungspflicht in der digitalen Arbeitswelt. Neue Zeitschrift für Sozialrecht 1: 7–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cavallini, G. 2018. The classification of crowdwork and work by platforms: Alternatives and implications. In Work in digital and smart organizations, eds. E. Ales, Y. Curzi, T. Fabbri, O. Rymkevich, I. Senatori, and G. Solinas, 113–137. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Däubler, W. 2015. Internet und Arbeitsrecht. Frankfurt a. M.: Bund.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Stefano, V. 2018. “Negotiating the algorithm”: Automation, artificial intelligence and labour protection. ILO. Employment Policy Department EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 246. Geneva: International Labour Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eufinger, A. 2016. Das Merkmal der „persönlichen Abhängigkeit“ bei der Abgrenzung von selbständiger und abhängiger Tätigkeit im Lichte arbeits- und sozialgerichtlicher Rechtsprechung. Arbeitsrecht Aktuell 17:421–424.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frenkel, S., M. Korczynski, L. Donoghue, and K. Shire. 1995. Re-constituting work: Trends towards knowledge work and info-normative control. Work, Employment & Society 9(4):773–796. https://doi.org/10.1177/095001709594008.

  • Giesen, R. 2019. Arbeits- und Ruhezeiten in der digitalisierten Arbeitswelt. In Arbeitszeitmodelle der Zukunft, eds. R. Giesen, A. Junker, and V. Rieble. 15. ZAAR-Kongress. München, 4. Mai 2018, 15–37. München: ZAAR.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greiner, S. 2016. Die Vielfalt moderner Arbeitsformen im Sozialrecht. Die Sozialgerichtsbarkeit 6:301–309.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hotvedt, M. 2018. The contract-of-employment test renewed. A Scandinavian approach to platform work. Spanish Labour Law and Employment Relations Journal 7(1–2):56–74. https://doi.org/10.20318/sllerj.2018.4436.

  • Howcroft, D., and B. Bergvall-Kåreborn. 2018. A typology of crowdwork platforms. Work, Employment and Society 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017018760136.

  • Ingrao, A. 2018. Assessment by feedback in the on-demand era. In Work in digital and smart organizations, eds. E. Ales, Y. Curzi, T. Fabbri, O. Rymkevich, I. Senatori, and G. Solinas, 93–111. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Ivanova, M., J. Bronowicka, E. Kocher, and A. Degner. 2018. The App as a Boss? Control and autonomy in application-based management. Arbeit/Grenze/Fluss—Work in Progress interdisziplinärer Arbeitsforschung No. 2, Frankfurt (Oder): Viadrina, https://doi.org/10.11584/arbeit-grenze-fluss.2.

  • Kempermann, M. 2017. Works councils & social media in Germany. Lexology. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=3f13c198-99e5-416d-ba99-318399f0bfc0.

  • Koch, P. 2010. Selbständigkeit in der virtualisierten Arbeitswelt. Kassel: Kassel University Press GmbH.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kocher, E., and I. Hensel. 2016. Herausforderungen des Arbeitsrechts durch digitale Plattformen – ein neuer Koordinationsmodus von Erwerbsarbeit. Neue Zeitschrift für Arbeitsrecht 16:984–990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar, G., and A. Prakash. 2008. Prakash Interplay of management control and employee agency in a call centre. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 43(4):574–602.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leimeister, J. M., D. Durward, and S. Zogaj. 2016. Crowd worker in Deutschland. Eine empirische Studie zum Arbeitsumfeld auf externen Crowdsourcing-Plattformen. Study 323. Hans Böckler Stiftung. https://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_study_hbs_323.pdf.

  • Linnenkohl, K. 1998. Die Virtualisierung der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Betriebs-Berater 1:45–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linnenkohl, K. 1999. Selbständigen-Kultur und Arbeitsmarkt, Betriebs-Berater 1:48–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lobel, O. 2018. Coase and the platform economy. In Cambridge handbook of the law of the sharing economy, eds. N. Davidson, M. Finck, and J. Infranca, 67–77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Makadok, K., and C. Coff. 2009. Both market and hierarchy: An incentive-system theory of hybrid governance forms. Academy of Management Review 34:297–319.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie, F. 2017. The fourth industrial revolution and international migration. Migration and Border Policy Project. Working Paper. No. 5. Lowy Institute for International Policy https://www.lowyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/documents/Fiona%20McKenzie%20-%20Fourth%20industrial%20revolution%20and%20international%20migration_WEB_0.pdf.

  • Prassl, J. 2018. Humans as a service. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, B. 2018. Fissuring, data-driven governance, and platform economy labor standards. In Cambridge handbook of the law of the sharing economy, eds. N. Davidson, M. Finck, and J. Infranca, 304–315. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Scheriau, K. 2010. Selbstständig oder Scheinselbständig?. Berlin: Autorenverlag K. M. Scheriau.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schönefeld, D. 2019. Kontrollierte Autonomie. Einblick in die Praxis des Crowdworking. In Selbständige Unselbständigkeit, eds. I. Hensel, D. Schönefeld, E. Kocher, A. Schwarz, and J. Koch, 43–83. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selzer, D. 2015. Crowdworking – Arbeitsrecht zwischen Theorie und Praxis. In Zwischen Theorie und Praxis - Herausforderungen des Arbeitsrechts, eds. T. Husemann, and A. Wietfeld. Dokumentation der 5. Assistententagung im Arbeitsrecht vom 16.–17.07.2015, Bochum 2015, 27–48. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wank, R. 1988. Arbeitnehmer und Selbständige. München: Beck.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waas, B. 2017. Crowdwork in Germany. In Crowdwork. A Comparative Law Perspective, eds. B. Waas, W. Liebman, A. Lyubarsky, and K. Katsutoshi, 142–186. Frankfurt a. M.: Bund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, M., and M. Schmidt. 2008. Labour law and industrial relations in Germany. Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Willemsen, H. J., and M. Müntefering. 2008. Begriff und Rechtsstellung arbeitnehmerähnlicher Personen: Versuch einer Präzisierung. Neue Zeitschrift für Arbeitsrecht 4:193–201.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, A., M. Graham, V. Lehdonvirta, and I. Hjorth. 2018. Good gig, bad gig: Autonomy and agorithmic control in the global gig economy. Work, Employment & Society 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017018785616.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Olga Chesalina .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Chesalina, O. (2020). Platform Work as a New Form of Employment: Implications for Labour and Social Law. In: Wratny, J., Ludera-Ruszel, A. (eds) New Forms of Employment. Prekarisierung und soziale Entkopplung – transdisziplinäre Studien. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-28511-1_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-28511-1_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer VS, Wiesbaden

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-658-28510-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-658-28511-1

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics