Regime outcomes and degree of democracy in the post-Soviet states
This chapter explores the regime outcomes and the quality of democracy in the four post-Soviet states under study based on the analytical mechanism developed in the chapter on methodology. By combining the two components, it identifies three patterns of regime dynamics in post-Soviet space: authoritarian regime outcomes and lower degree of democracy (Armenia and Belarus; Georgia and Ukraine until 2004), democratic regime outcomes and lower quality of democracy (Georgia in 2003-2009, Ukraine 2010-2012), and democratic regime outcomes and higher quality of democracy (Georgia 2010-2014, Ukraine 2004-2010, 2013-2014). As the empirical analysis clearly shows, democratic regime outcomes and higher quality of democracy do not always go together. On the contrary, democratic outcome might be accompanied with a decrease in democratic quality. The second part of the chapter explores the evolution of the quality of democracy on the level of partial regimes based on the analytical concept of embedded democracy. As the empirical data indicate, electoral regimes have witnessed the most variation over time, whereas civil and political rights have experienced the least change. The regime of horizontal accountability has varied in Georgia’s case, but has remained mostly static in the other states under study.
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