Perceived Product Risk while Shopping Online: Does Virtual Reality vs. 2D Reduce Uncertainty?
This research explores if a virtual reality (VR) vs. a 2D display of an online shop reduces the perceived product risk. Thereby the role of the sense of presence (SoP) will be analyzed and whether the evocation of the SoP can be predicted by the possibility to interact with the virtual environment as well as by the social connectivity with a friend while shopping online. The results of three empirical studies affirm the importance of a VR display to reduce uncertainties regarding the products in online shops and outline techniques how to trigger the SoP.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Algharabat, R., Rana, N. P., Dwived, Y. K., Alalwan, A. A., & Qasem, Z. (2018). The effect of telepresence, social presence and involvement on consumer brand engagement. An empirical study of non-profit organizations. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40(January), 139–149.Google Scholar
- Biocca, F. (1992). Virtual reality technology: A tutorial. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 23–50.Google Scholar
- Biocca, F. (1997). The Cyborg’s Dilemma. Progressive Embodiment in Virtual Environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2), 0–0.Google Scholar
- Biocca, F., Harms, C., & Burgoon, J. K. (2003). Toward a More Robust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 12(5), 456–480.Google Scholar
- Cairns, P., Cox, A. L., Day, M., Martin, H., & Perryman, T. (2013). Who but not where. The effect of social play on immersion in digital games. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 71(11), 1069–1077.Google Scholar
- Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) (2017). 2017 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey on Internet Security and Trust. https://www.cigionline.org/internet-survey. Accessed on: 7th Sept. 2018.
- Coates, G. (1992). Program from Invisible Site—a virtual sho, a multimedia performance work presented by George Coates Performance Works. San Francisco, CA (March).Google Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Forsythe, S. M. & Shi, B. (2003). Consumer patronage and risk perceptions in Internet shopping. Journal of Business Research, 56(November), 867–875.Google Scholar
- Fortin, D. R., & Dholakia, R. R. (2005). Interactivity and vividness effects on social presence and involvement with a web-based advertisement. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 387–396.Google Scholar
- Goldman Sachs (2016). Profiles in Innovation. http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/pages/technology-driving-innovation-folder/virtual-and-augmented-reality/report.pdf. Accessed on: 7th Sept. 2018.
- Grabner-Kraeuter, S. (2002). The Role of Consumers’ Trust in Online-Shopping. Journal of Business Ethics, 39(1), 43–50.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1996), Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual Foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 50–68.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, D. L., Novak, T. P., & Peralta, M. (1999). Building consumer trust online. Communication of the ACM, 42(4), 80–85.Google Scholar
- Huang, M.-H. (2003). Designing website attributes to induce experiential encounters. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(4), 425–442.Google Scholar
- Jiang, Z., & Benbasat, I. (2004). Virtual product experience: Effects of visual and functional control of products on perceived diagnosticity and flow in electronic shopping. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(3), 111–147.Google Scholar
- Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A., Jochems, W., & van Buuren, H. (2004). Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborative groups. Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 7(2), 155–172.Google Scholar
- Kristofferson, K., Daniels, M., & Morales, A. (2016). Positive Effects from Negative Virtual Experiences: How Virtual Reality Can Be Used Effectively in Marketing. In P. Moreau, S. Puntoni, Duluth (eds.), NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 44, (pp. 524–525). MN: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
- Li, H., Daugherty, T., & Biocca, F. (2002). Impact of 3-D Advertising on Product Knowledge, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention. The Mediating Role of Presence. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 43–57.Google Scholar
- Mahnke, R., Benlian, A., & Hess, T. (2014). Flow experience in information systems research: revisiting its conceptualization, conditions, and effects. Proceedings of the Thirty Fifth International Conference on Information Systems, Auckland. 1–22.Google Scholar
- Makowski, D., Sperduti, M., Nicolas, S., & Piolino, P. (2017). “Being there” and remembering it: Presence improves memory encoding. Consciousness and Cognition, 53(August), 194–202.Google Scholar
- Negash, S., Ryan, T., & Igbaria, M. (2003). Quality and effectiveness in Web-based customer support systems. Information and Management, 40(8), 757–768.Google Scholar
- Ozkara, B. Y., Ozmen, M, & Kim, J. W. (2016). Exploring the relationship between information satisfaction and flow in the context of consumers’ online search. Computers in Human Behavior, 63(October), 844–859.Google Scholar
- Ozkara, B.Y., Ozmen, M., & Kim, J. W. (2017). Examining the effect of flow experience on online purchase. A novel approach to the flow theory based on hedonic and utilitarian value. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 37(4), 119–131.Google Scholar
- Park, S. R., Nah, F. F., DeWester, D., & Eschenbrenner, B. (2008). Virtual world affordances: Enhancing brand value. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2), 1–18.Google Scholar
- Sicilia, M., Ruiz, S., & Munuer, J. L. (2005). Effects of Interactivity in a Web Site: The Moderating Effect of Need for Cognition. Journal of Advertising, 34(3), 31–45.Google Scholar
- Shin, N. (2006). Online learner’s ‘flow’ experience: An empirical study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(5), 705–720.Google Scholar
- Steuer, J. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence”, Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93.Google Scholar
- Webster, J., Trevino, L.J., & Ryan, L. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human-computer interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, 9(4), 411–426.Google Scholar
- Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., Habegger, S., Steiner, Y., & Groner, R. (2008). Playing online games against computer- vs. human-controlled opponents: Effects on presence, flow, and enjoyment, Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2274–2291.Google Scholar
- Weibel, D., & Wissmath, B. (2011). Immersion in Computer Games. The Role of Spatial Presence and Flow. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 28(3), 1–14.Google Scholar
- Yim, M. Y.-C., Cicchirillo, V. J., & Drumwright, M. E. (2012). The Impact of Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional (3-D) Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(2), 113–128.Google Scholar