Emotion in a 360-Degree vs. Traditional Format Through EDA, EEG and Facial Expressions

  • Mª Concepción CastellanosEmail author
  • José Manuel Ausin
  • Jaime Guixeres
  • Enrique Bigné
Part of the European Advertising Academy book series (EAA)


Digital video advertising is growing exponentially. It is expected that digital video ad spending of the US will see double-digit growth annually through 2020 (eMarketer, 2016). Moreover, advertisers are spending on average more than $10 million annually on Digital Video, representing an 85% increase from 2 years (iab, 2016).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaker, D. A.; Stayman, D. M. and Hagerty, M. R. (1986), “Warmth in advertising: Measurement, impact, and sequence effects,” in Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 12(4), 365-381.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J.J.; Coan, J.A., and Nazarian, M., (2004), “Issues and assumptions on the road from raw signals to metrics of frontal EEG asymmetry in emotion,” in: Biological Psychology, Vol. 67, 183–218.Google Scholar
  3. Argyriou, L.; Economou, D., Bouki, V., and Doumanis, I. (2016), “Engaging immersive video consumers: Challenges regarding 360-degree gamified video applications,” In: Ubiquitous Computing and Communications and 2016 International Symposium on Cyberspace and Security (IUCC-CSS), International Conference on (pp. 145-152). IEEE.Google Scholar
  4. Bagozzi, R. P.; Wong, N., and Yi, Y. (1999), “The role of culture and gender in the relationship between positive and negative affect,” in: Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 13(6), 641-672.Google Scholar
  5. Berka, C.; Levendowski, D. J., Lumicao, M. N., Yau, A., Davis, G., Zivkovic, V. T., … and Craven, P. L. (2007), “EEG correlates of task engagement and mental workload in vigilance, learning, and memory tasks,” in: Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, Vol. 78(5), B231-B244.Google Scholar
  6. Bolls, P. D.; Lang, A., and Potter, R. F. (2001), “The effects of message valence and listener arousal on attention, memory, and facial muscular responses to radio advertisements,” in: Communication Research, Vol. 28(5), 627-651.Google Scholar
  7. Chambel, T.; Chhaganlal, M. N., and Neng, L. A. (2011), “Towards immersive interactive video through 360 hypervideo,” In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, (p. 78), ACM.Google Scholar
  8. Cohn, J. F., Ambadar, Z., & Ekman, P. (2007). “Observer-based measurement of facial expression with the Facial Action Coding System” in: The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment, 203-221.Google Scholar
  9. Davidson, R. J. (2004), “What Does the Prefrontal Cortex ‘Do’ in Affect: Perspectives on Frontal EEG Asymmetry Research,” Biological Psychology, 67, 219-33.Google Scholar
  10. eMarketer 2016. “Digital Video Advertising Continues to Expand,“ accessed January 10. Retrieved from
  11. Gudacker, J. (2016), “360 Degree Videos - An Online Marketing Revolution? A Critical Review and Outlook for Social Media Marketers,” accessed January 10. Retrieved from
  12. Habig, J. (2016) , “Is 360 video advertising worth it? Think with Google. Retrieved from
  13. iab (2016), “2016 IAB Video Ad Spend Study ,“ accessed January 10. Retrieved from
  14. iMotions Biometric Research Platform 6.0, iMotions A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016.Google Scholar
  15. Johar, G. V., Maheswaran, D., and Peracchio, L. A. (2006), “Mapping the frontiers: Theoretical advances in consumer research on memory, affect, and persuasion,” in: Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 33(1), 139-149.Google Scholar
  16. Johnson, R. R.; Popovic, D., Olmstead, R. E., Stikic, M., Levendowski, D. J., and Berka, C. (2011), “Drowsiness determination through EEG: development and validation,” in: Biological Psychology , Vol. 87(2), 241-250.Google Scholar
  17. Klem, G. H.; Luders, H. O., Jasperf, H. H., and Elger, C. (1999), Section 1. “EEG (Technical Standards and Glossary)-1.1. The ten-twenty electrode system of the International Federation,” in: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Supplements only, (52), 3-6.Google Scholar
  18. Krawford, K. (2011) “Digital Technologies Effect on Humans and Societies,” accessed January 10, 2017. Retrieved from
  19. Kuppens, P.; Tuerlinckx, F., Russell, J. A., and Barrett, L. F. (2013), “The relation between valence and arousal in subjective experience,” in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 139(4), 917.Google Scholar
  20. Lajante, M.; Droulers, O., Dondaine, T., and Amarantini, D. (2012), “Opening the “black box” of electrodermal activity in consumer neuroscience research,” in: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, Vol. 5(4), 238.Google Scholar
  21. Lang, P. J. (1995), “The emotion probe: Studies of motivation and attention,” in American Psychologist, Vol. 50(5), 372Google Scholar
  22. Luck, S.J. (2010), “Is it legitimate to compare conditions with different numbers of trials?” accesed May 10, 2016 from
  23. Marks, L. J., and Olson, J. C. (1981), “Toward a cognitive structure conceptualization of product familiarity,” in: “NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 08, eds. Kent B. Monroe, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer”, Vol. 8, 145-150.Google Scholar
  24. McDuff, D. (2017), “New Methods for Measuring Advertising Efficacy”. Digital Advertising: Theory and Research.Google Scholar
  25. Morris, J. D.; Woo, C., Geason, J. A., and Kim, J. (2002), “The power of affect: Predicting intention,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 42(3), 7-17Google Scholar
  26. Ohme, R.; Reykowska, D., Wiener, D., and Choromanska, A. (2009), “Analysis of neurophysiological reactions to advertising stimuli by means of EEG and galvanic skin response measures,” in: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, Vol. 2(1), 21.Google Scholar
  27. Ohme, R.; Reykowska, D., Wiener, D., and Choromanska, A. (2010), “Application of frontal EEG asymmetry to advertising research,” in: Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 31(5), 785-793.Google Scholar
  28. Peacock, J.; Purvis, S., and Hazlett, R. L. (2011), “Which broadcast medium better drives engagement? ,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51(4), 578-585.Google Scholar
  29. Pentus, K.; Mehine, T., and Kuusik, A. (2014), “Considering Emotions in Product Package Design through Combining Conjoint Analysis with Psycho Physiological Measurements,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 148, 280-290.Google Scholar
  30. Poels, K., Dewitte, S. (2006), “How to Capture the Heart? Reviewing 20 Years of Emotion Measurement in Advertising,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46(1), 18–37.Google Scholar
  31. Ramalho, J., and Chambel, T. (2013, October), “Immersive 360 mobile video with an emotional perspective,” In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international workshop on Immersive media experiences (pp. 35-40), ACM.Google Scholar
  32. Russell, C. A. (2002), “Investigating the effectiveness of product placements in television shows: The role of modality and plot connection congruence on brand memory and attitude,” in: Journal of consumer research, Vol. 29(3), 306-318.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, E. E.; Reznik, S. J., Stewart, J. L., and Allen, J. J. (2017), “Assessing and conceptualizing frontal EEG asymmetry: An updated primer on recording, processing, analyzing, and interpreting frontal alpha asymmetry,” in: International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 111, 98-114.Google Scholar
  34. Smolic, A.; Mueller, K., Merkle, P., Fehn, C., Kauff, P., Eisert, P., and Wiegand, T. (2006), “3D video and free viewpoint video-technologies, applications and MPEG standards,” in: Multimedia and Expo, 2006 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 2161-2164), IEEE.Google Scholar
  35. Su, Y. C., and Grauman, K. (2017), “Making 360-degree Video Watchable in 2D: Learning Videography for Click Free Viewing”. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.00495.Google Scholar
  36. Teixeira, T., Picard, R., and El Kaliouby, R. (2014), “Why, when, and how much to entertain consumers in advertisements? A web-based facial tracking field study,” in: Marketing Science, Vol. 33(6), 809-827.Google Scholar
  37. Teixeira, T., Wedel, M., and Pieters, R. (2012), “Emotion-induced engagement in internet video advertisements,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 49(2), 144-159.Google Scholar
  38. Vecchiato, G.; Toppi, J., Astolfi, L., Fallani, F. D. V., Cincotti, F., Mattia, D., and Babiloni, F. (2011), “Spectral EEG frontal asymmetries correlate with the experienced pleasantness of TV commercial advertisements,” in: Medical and biological engineering and computing, Vol. 49(5), 579-583.Google Scholar
  39. Visch, V. T.,; Tan, E. S., and Molenaar, D. (2010), “The emotional and cognitive effect of immersion in film viewing,” in: Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 24(8), 1439-1445.Google Scholar
  40. Wang, Y. J.; and Minor, M. S. (2008), “Validity, reliability, and applicability of psychophysiological techniques in marketing research,” in: Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 25(2), 197-232.Google Scholar
  41. Wise, K., and Reeves, B. (2007), “The effect of user control on the cognitive and emotional processing of pictures,” in: Media Psychology, Vol. 9(3), 549-566.Google Scholar
  42. YouTube 2016, “Most popular 360 Ads on YouTube - Cannes 2016” Accessed January 10. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mª Concepción Castellanos
    • 1
    Email author
  • José Manuel Ausin
    • 1
  • Jaime Guixeres
    • 1
  • Enrique Bigné
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería /CBR groupUniversidad Politécnica de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Facultad de Economía/Dpto Comercialización e Investigación de MercadosUniversidad Politécnica de ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations