Minority Protection after EU Integration: The Case of Romania

  • Alina Alexandra Bot


According to the 2011 census, Romania is home to no less than 19 different minorities, which make 10.4 percent of Romania’s population. The most numerous minority in Romania is the Hungarian minority (6.1 percent of the total population), followed by the Roma minority (3.3 percent), Ukrainians (0.2 percent), Germans (0.2 percent), Turks and several other smaller minorities.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barany, Zoltan: East European Gypsies. Regime Change, Marginality, and Ethnopolitics, Cambridge 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Barany, Zoltan: Romani Marginality and Politics, in: Carey, Henry F. (Ed.): Romania since 1989. Politics, Economics, and Society, Lanham 2004, pp. 255-275.Google Scholar
  3. Berceanu, Călina: Marko Bela acuzat că face ce vrea cu banii destinaţi comunităţii maghiare [Marko Bela accused of misuse of allocations for the Hungarian community], in: Adevarul, Issue 4300, 30th April 2004.Google Scholar
  4. Boţ, Alina A.: International Leverage on Minority Rights and Protection. The Case of Romania within Integration into International and European Organisations, Hamburg 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Boţ, Alina A.: National and Ethnic Minorities in Romania: Governmental Approach, in: Lex ET Scientia International Journal. Administrative Series, Vol. 16, Issue 2 (2009), pp. 426-444.Google Scholar
  6. Bunjes, Ulrich: European Year of Languages 2001. Final Evaluation Report, Council of Europe, Language Policy Division, Strasbourg 2002.Google Scholar
  7. Carothers, Thomas: Aiding Democracy Abroad. The Learning Curve, Washington, DC 1999.Google Scholar
  8. Committee of Ministers: 8th Resolution on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Romania, 996th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies, 23rd March 2007.Google Scholar
  9. EU-Romania Association Council: Sixth meeting, Joint Press Release UE-RO 1805/00, Brussels, 21st March 2000.Google Scholar
  10. European Commission / DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities: Case Study on National Awareness-Raising Activities (2001-2006), Paris 2006.Google Scholar
  11. European Commission: Monitoring report on the state of preparedness for EU membership of Bulgaria and Romania, COM(2006) 549 final, Brussels, 26th September 2006.Google Scholar
  12. European Commission: 2000 Regular report from the Commission on Romania’s progress towards accession, COM(2000) 710 final, Brussels, 8th November 2000.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission: 2001 Regular report from the Commission on Romania’s progress towards accession, SEC(2001) 175, Brussels, 13th November 2001.Google Scholar
  14. European Commission: 2002 Regular Report from the Commission on Romania’s progress towards accession, SEC(2002) 1409, Brussels, 9th October 2002.Google Scholar
  15. European Commission: 2003 Regular Report from the Commission on Romania’s progress towards accession, SEC/2003/1211, Brussels, 5th November 2003.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission: Agenda 2000. For a Stronger and Wider Union, COM (97)2000 final, Brussels, 15th July 1997, in: (Access: 12.12.2017).
  17. European Commission: Regular report from the Commission on Romania’s progress towards accession, 4th November 1998.Google Scholar
  18. European Commission: Romania May 2006 Monitoring Report, SEC(2006) 596, Brussels, 16th May 2006.Google Scholar
  19. European Council: European Council in Copenhagen 21-22 June 1993. Conclusions of the Presidency, SN 180/1/93 REV 1, in: (Access: 12.12.2017).
  20. Frontul Salvării Naţionale [National Salvation Front]: Declaraţie cu privire la drepturile minorităţilor naţionale din Romȃnia [Declaration on the rights of national minorities in Romania], 6th January 1990.Google Scholar
  21. Government Decision 220/1993, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 156, July 9th 1993.Google Scholar
  22. Government Decision 506/1997, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 245, 19th September 1997.Google Scholar
  23. Government Decision No. 137/1993 on the establishing and functioning of the Council for National Minorities, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 74, 12th April 1993.Google Scholar
  24. Government Decision No. 17/1997 on the Setting up, Organizing and Functioning of the Department for the Protection of National Minorities, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 17, 5th February 1997.Google Scholar
  25. Governmental Decision 459/1998 on the setting up and functioning of the Inter-Ministerial Committee for National Minorities, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 295, 11th August 1998.Google Scholar
  26. Horváth, István / Raţ, Ramona / Vitos, Katalin: Aplicarea legislaţiei cu privire la drepturile minorităţilor natţonale in România: Drepturi lingvistice in administraţia publică locală [Implementation of legislation regarding the rights of national minorities in Romania: Linguistic rights in local public administration], Centrul de cercetare a relatiilor interetnice [Center for the study of interethnic relations, financed by the Department for Interethnic Relations], 2006.Google Scholar
  27. Horváth, István: Facilitating Conflict Transformation: Implementation of the Recommendations of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities to Romania 1993-2001, in: Zellner, Wolfgang / Oberschmidt, Randolf / Neukirch, Claus (Eds.): Comparative Case Studies on the Effectiveness of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, Working Paper 8, Hamburg 2002, (Access: 12.12.2017).
  28. Huntington, Samuel P.: The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Norman 1991.Google Scholar
  29. Law 324/2006 for the modification and completion of the Government Emergency Ordinance No. 137/2000 on the prevention and sanctioning of all the discrimination forms, in: Official Gazette of Romania, No. 626, 20th July 2006.Google Scholar
  30. Law No. 7/2005 on the approval of the Government Emergency Ordinance 78/2004 on the setting up of the National Agency for Roma, in: Official Gazette of Romania No. 183 of with further modifications, 3rd March 2005.Google Scholar
  31. Linz, Juan J. / Stepan, Alfred: Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe, Baltimore / London 1996.Google Scholar
  32. Linz, Juan J. / Stepan, Alfred: Toward Consolidated Democracy, in: Diamond, Larry / Plattner, Marc F. (Eds.): The Global Divergence of Democracies, Baltimore / London 2001, pp. 96-100.Google Scholar
  33. Ministry of Public Information: Department for Inter-ethnic Relations. Internal Activity Report, Bucharest 2002.Google Scholar
  34. Mohacsek, Magdolna: Analiza finanţărilor alocate organizaţiilor minorităţilor naţionale/Analysis of the Financial Allocations to National Minority Organisations, in: Salat, Levente (Eds.): Politici de integrare a minoritatilor nationale din Romania: Aspecte legale si institutionale dintr-o perspectiva comparata [Policies for the Integration of National minorities in Romania: Legal and Institutional Aspects from a Comparative Perspective], Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnoculturala (CRDE), Cluj Napoca 2008, pp. 147-166.Google Scholar
  35. Open Society Institute: Minority Protection in Romania, in: Open Society Institute: Monitoring the EU-Accession Process: Minority Protection. Country Reports, Budapest 2001, pp. 385-428.Google Scholar
  36. Oprescu, Dan: Politici Publice pentru Minorităţile Naţionale din Romania (1996-1998) [Public Policies for National Minorities in Romania (1996-1998)], in: Nastasă, Lucian / Salat, Levente (Eds.) Relaţii interetnice in România postcomunista, Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnoculturala, Cluj-Napoca 2000, pp. 73-82.Google Scholar
  37. Oprescu, Dan: Roma issues in Romania-The Year 2000 and beyond, in: OSCE Yearbook 2000,, pp. 281-285 (Access: 12.12.2017).
  38. Romanian National Council for Combating Discrimination: Activity Report 2016, in: (Access: 12.12.2017).
  39. Romanian National Institute of Statistics: PRESS RELEASE Nr.159 July 4th, 2013 on the final results of Population and Housing Census – 2011, in: (Access: 12.12.2017).
  40. Sasse, Gwendolyn: Minority Rights and EU Enlargement: Normative Overstretch or Effective Conditionality?, in: Toggenburg, Gabriel N. (Ed.): Minority Protection and the Enlarged European Union. The Way Forward, Budapest 2004, pp. 59-83.Google Scholar
  41. Secretariat of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (Eds.): Letter from the CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania, CSCE Communication No. 253, 9th September 1993.Google Scholar
  42. Sipos, Zoltan: Cum sunt cheltuiţi banii maghiarimii din Transilvania? Cum justifică UDMR [How is the money belonging to the Hungarian minority spent in Transylvania? DUHR Justifications], in:, 28th November 2016, (Access: 30.8.2017).
  43. Weiner, Robert: Change in Eastern Europe, Westport / London 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WienÖsterreich

Personalised recommendations