GentriMap: A Model for Measuring Gentrification and Displacement

  • Andrej HolmEmail author
  • Guido Schulz


Gentrification has become a key concept in recent years for describing current urban development trends (not only in Berlin). The background is a changed geography of gentrification that is no longer limited to individual neighborhoods, but encompasses broad central areas of many cities. Urban social movements, in particular, but also some municipal governments, have put the topic of urban gentrification processes on the political agenda in recent years and are seeking suitable strategies to counter the displacement they entail.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adorno, T. W. (1972) [1957] Soziologie und empirische Sozialforschung. In T. W. Adorno et. al. (eds.), Der Positivismusstreit in der deutschen Soziologie. Darmstadt, Neuwied: Luchterhand.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, R. (2000) Measuring Gentrification and Displacement in Greater London. Urban Studies 37.1, 149–165.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R. (2004) The evidence on the impact of gentrification: new lessons for the urban renaissance? European Journal of Housing Policy 4.1, 107–131.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R. and G. Bridge (eds.) (2005) Gentrification in a Global Context. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson, R., M. Wulff, M. Reynolds and A. Spinney (2011) Gentrification and displacement: The household impacts of neighbourhood change. AHURI Final Report No 160. Melbourne: Australian Housing & Urban Research Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Badyina, A. and O. Golubchikov (2005) Gentrification in Central Moscow—A Market Process or a Deliberate Policy? Money, Power and People in Housing Regeneration in Ostozhenka. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 87.2, 113–129.Google Scholar
  7. Barton, M. (2016) An Exploration of the Importance of the Strategy Used to Identify Gentrification. Urban Studies 53.1, 92–111.Google Scholar
  8. Beauregard, R. (1986) The Chaos and Complexity of Gentrification. In N. Smith and P. Williams (eds.), Gentrification of the City. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, B. J. L. (1985) Islands of Renewal in Seas of Decay. In P. E. Peterson (ed.), The New Urban Reality. Washington, DC: Brookings.Google Scholar
  10. Blasius, J. (1993) Gentrification und Lebensstile: Eine empirische Untersuchung. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag.Google Scholar
  11. Bridge, G. (2003) Time-space trajectories in provincial gentrification. Urban Studies 40.12, 2545–2556.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, T. and L. Lees (2006) Super-gentrification in Barnsbury, London: Globalisation and Gentrifying Global Elites at the Neighbourhood Level. Institute of British Geographers, Transactions 31.4, 467–468.Google Scholar
  13. Cameron, S. (2003) Gentrification, Housing Redifferentiation and Urban Regeneration: ›Going for Growth‹ in Newcastle upon Tyne. Urban Studies 40.12, 2367–2382.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, E. (2015) The adventure of generic gentrification. In: L. Lees, H. B. Shin and E. López-Morales (eds.), Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Bristol, Chicago: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  15. Clay, P. L. (1979) Neighborhood renewal: middle-class resettlement and incumbent upgrading in American neighborhoods. New York City: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Connell, R. W. (2007) Southern theory: the global dynamics of knowledge in social science. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dangschat, J. S. (1988) Gentrification: Der Wandel innenstadtnaher Wohnviertel. In J. Friedrichs (ed.), Soziologische Stadtforschung, Sonderheft 29. Opladen: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie.Google Scholar
  18. Darling, E. (2005) The city in the country: wilderness gentrification and the rent gap. Environment and Planning A 37.6, 1015–1032.Google Scholar
  19. Davidson, M. and L. Lees (2005) New-build gentrification and London’s riverside renaissance. Environment and Planning A 37.7, 1165–1190.Google Scholar
  20. Davidson, M. and L. Lees (2010) New-build gentrification: its histories, trajectories, and critical geographies. Population, Space and Place 16, 395–411.Google Scholar
  21. Dittrich-Wesbuer, A. and K. Brzenczek (2010) Wanderungsentscheidungen von Haushalten Im Bergischen Land: Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Untersuchung. In ILS-Forschung, Dortmund (ed.), Demographischer Wandel in Nordrhein-Westfalen 01/2010.Google Scholar
  22. Dutton, P. (2003) Leeds Calling: The Influence of London on the Gentrification of Regional Cities. Urban Studies 40.12, 2557–2572.Google Scholar
  23. Dutton, P. (2005) Outside the Metropole: Gentrification in Provincial Cities or Provincial Gentrification? In R. Atkinson and G. Bridge (eds.), Gentrification in a Global Context. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Eckardt, F. (2014) Stadtforschung: Gegenstand und Methoden. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  25. Ergun, N. (2004) Gentrification in Istanbul. Cities 21.5, 391–405.Google Scholar
  26. Farhauer, O. and A. Kröll (2013) Standorttheorien. Regional- und Stadtökonomik in Theorie und Praxis. New York City: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Feldmann, M. (2000) Gentrification and Social Stratification in Tallinn: Strategies for Local. Governance. SOCO Project Paper 86. Wien: Institute for Human Science.Google Scholar
  28. Freeman, L. (2005) Displacement or Succession? Residential Mobility in Gentrifying Neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Review 40.4, 463–491.Google Scholar
  29. Freeman, L. and F. Braconi (2004) Gentrification and Displacement in New York City in the 1990s. Journal of the American Planning Association 70.1, 39–52.Google Scholar
  30. Freeman, L., A. Cassola and T. Cai (2015) Displacement and Gentrification in England and Wales: A Quasi-Experimental Approach. Urban Studies 53/13, 1–18.Google Scholar
  31. Friedrichs, J. (1996) Gentrification: Forschungsstand und methodologische Probleme. In J. Friedrichs and R. Kesckes (eds.), Gentrification: Theorie und Forschungsergebnisse 13–40. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.Google Scholar
  32. Friedrichs, J. (2000) Gentrification. In H. Häußermann (ed.), Großstadt. Soziologische Stichworte. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.Google Scholar
  33. Fujitsuka, Y. (2005) Gentrification and neighbourhood dynamics in Japan: the case of Kyoto. In A. Rowland and G. Bridge (eds.), Gentrification in a Global Context. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Ghertner, D. A. (2011) Gentrifying the State, Gentrifying Participation: Elite Governance Programs in Delhi. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35.3, 504–532.Google Scholar
  35. Ghertner, D. A. (2015) Why gentrification theory fails in ›much of the world‹. CITY 19.4, 552–563.Google Scholar
  36. Ghose, R. (2007) Big Sky or Big Sprawl? Rural Gentrification and the Changing Cultural Landscape of Missoula, Montana. Urban Geography 256, 528–549.Google Scholar
  37. Glatter, J. (2007) Gentrification in Ostdeutschland—untersucht am Beispiel der Dresdner Äußeren Neustadt. Dresdner Geographische Beiträge Heft 11. Dresden: TU Dresden.Google Scholar
  38. Grier, E. and G. Grier (1980) Urban Displacement: A Reconnaissance. In S. B. Laska and D. Spain (eds.), Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation: Making of a Movement - Issues in Neighbourhood Renovation. New York City: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hackworth, J. and N. Smith (2001) The changing state of gentrification. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 92.4, 464–477.Google Scholar
  40. Hamnett, C. (2010) ›I am critical. You are mainstream‹—A response to Slater. CITY 14.1, 180–186.Google Scholar
  41. Häußermann, H. (1990) Der Einfluß von ökonomischen und sozialen Prozessen auf die Gentrification. In J. Blasius and J. Dangschat (eds.), Gentrification. Die Aufwertung innenstadtnaher Wohnviertel. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus.Google Scholar
  42. Häußermann, H. and W. Siebel (1987) Neue Urbanität. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  43. Hedin, K., E. Clark, E. Lundholm and G. Malmberg (2012) Neoliberalization of Housing in Sweden: Gentrification, Filtering, and Social Polarization. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 102.2, 443–463.Google Scholar
  44. Hjort, S. (2009) Rural gentrification as a migration process: Evidence from Sweden. Migration Letters 6.1, 91–100.Google Scholar
  45. Holm, A. (2011) Gentrification in Berlin: Neue Investitionsstrategien und lokale Konflikte. In H. Herrmann, C. Keller, R. Neef and R. Ruhne (eds.), Die Besonderheit des Städtischen. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  46. Holm, A. (2013) Berlin’s Gentrification Mainstream. In A. Holm, B. Grell, and M. Bernt (eds.), The Berlin Reader. A Compendium on Urban Change and Activism 171–187. Bielefeld: Transcript.Google Scholar
  47. ISER - Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex (2016) British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). URL (Accessed 20 January 2016).
  48. İslam, T. (2010) Current Urban Discourse, Urban Transformation and Gentrification in Istanbul. Architectural Design 80.1, 58–63.Google Scholar
  49. Kovács, Zoltán (1998) Ghettoization or gentrification? Post-socialist scenarios for Budapest. Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 13.1, 63–81.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, B. A. and D. C. Hodge (1984) Spatial Differentials in Residential Displacement. Urban Studies 21.3, 219–231.Google Scholar
  51. Lees, L. (2006) Gentrifying down the urban hierarchy: ›The cascade effect‹ in Portland, Maine, USA. In D. Bell and M. Jayne (eds.), Small Cities: Urban Experience beyond the Metropolis. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Lees, L., T. Slater and E. Wyly (eds.) (2010) The Gentrification Reader. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Lees, L., H. B. Shin and E. López-Morales (2015) Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Bristol, Chicago: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  54. LeGates, R. T. and C. Hartman (1981) Displacement. Clearinghouse Review 15, 207–249.Google Scholar
  55. LeGates, R. T. and C. Hartman (1986) The Anatomy of Displacement in the United States. In N. Smith and P. Williams (eds.), Gentrification of the City. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  56. Lemanski, C. (2014) Hybrid Gentrification in South Africa: Theorising across Southern and Northern Cities. Urban Studies 51.14, 2943–2960.Google Scholar
  57. Ley, D. (1996) The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City. Oxford Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Marcuse, P. (1985) Gentrification, Abandonment, and Displacement: Connections, Causes, and Policy Responses in New York City. Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law 28.1, 195–240.Google Scholar
  59. Marcuse, P. (1992) Gentrification und die wirtschaftliche Umstrukturierung New Yorks. In H. G. Helms (ed.), Die Stadt als Gabentisch. Beobachtungen der aktuellen Städte bauentwicklung. Leipzig: Reclam.Google Scholar
  60. McKinnish, T., R. Walsh and T. K. White (2008) Who Gentrifies Low Income Neighborhoods? Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, Working Paper 08.2.Google Scholar
  61. Namba, T. (2000) Gentrification of Prewar Inner City Housing. Bulletin of Nagoya College 38.Google Scholar
  62. Newman, K. and E. Wyly (2006) The right to stay put, revisited: Gentrification and resistance to displacement in New York city. Urban Studies 43.1, 23–57.Google Scholar
  63. Phillips, M. (2005) Differential productions of rural gentrification: illustrations from North and South Norfolk. Geoforum 34.4, 477–494.Google Scholar
  64. Rérat, P., O. Söderström and E. Piguet (2010) New Forms of Gentrification: Issues and Debates«. Population, Space and Place 16.5, 335–343.Google Scholar
  65. Robinson, J. (2003) Postcolonialising Geography: Tactics and Pitfalls. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 24.3, 273–289.Google Scholar
  66. Robinson, J. (2006) Ordinary Cities: Between Modernity and Development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Robinson, J. (2011) Cities in a world of cities: The comparative gesture. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35.1, 1–23.Google Scholar
  68. Robinson, J. (2013) In the tracks of Comparative Urbanism: Difference, Urban Modernity and the Primitive. Urban Geography 25.8, 709–723.Google Scholar
  69. Rubino, S. (2005) A curious bled? City revitalisation, gentrification and commodification in Brazil. In R. Atkinson and G. Bridge (eds.), Gentrification in a Global Context, New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Ruoppila, S. and A. Kärik (2003) Socio-economic residential differentiation in post-socialist Tallin. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 18.1, 49–73.Google Scholar
  71. Schnuck, O. (2014) A Generic, City-Wide Framework for Measuring Gentrification and Its Application to Munich. Masterarbeit, Universität Duisburg-Essen. URL (Accessed 15 May 2015).
  72. Schulz, G. (2015) Aufwertung und Verdrängung in Berlin: Räumliche Analysen zur Messung von Gentrifizierung. Masterarbeit, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. URL (Accessed 15 May 2015).
  73. SenStadt (2013) Lebensweltlich orientierte Räume (LOR) in Berlin. Website der Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin. URL (Accessed 15 May 2015).
  74. Slater, T. (2006) The Eviction of Critical Perspectives from Gentrification Research. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30.4, 737–757.Google Scholar
  75. Slater, T. (2009) Missing Marcuse: On gentrification and displacements. CITY 13.2–3, 292–311.Google Scholar
  76. Slater, T. (2010) Still missing Marcuse: Hamnett’s foggy analysis in London town. CITY 14.1–2, 170–79.Google Scholar
  77. Slater, T. (2015) Planetary Rent Gaps. Antipode 1–24.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, N. (2002) New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy. Antipode 34, 427–450.Google Scholar
  79. Sumka, H. J. (1979) Neighborhood Revitalization and Displacement. A Review of the Evidence. Journal of the American Planning Association 45.4, 480–487.Google Scholar
  80. Sykora, L. (2005) Gentrification in post-communist cities. In R. Atkinson and G. Bridge (eds.), Gentrification in a Global Context. New York City: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Uzun, N. C. (2003) The impact of urban renewal and gentrification on urban fabric: three cases in Turkey. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 94.3, 363–375.Google Scholar
  82. Van Criekingen, M. (2009) Moving In/Out of Brussels’ Historical Core in the Early 2000s: Migration and the Effects of Gentrification. Urban Studies 46.4, 825–48.Google Scholar
  83. Vigdor, J. L., D. S. Massey and A. M. Rivlin (2002) Does Gentrification Harm the Poor? Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 133–182.Google Scholar
  84. Visser, G. and N. Kotze (2008) The State and New-build Gentrification in Central Cape Town, South Africa. Urban Studies 45.12, 2565–2593.Google Scholar
  85. Whithead, A. N. (1927) Prozess und Realität: Entwurf einer Kosmologie. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  86. Wyly, E. K. and D. J. Hammel (1999) Islands of decay in seas of renewal: Housing policy and the resurgence of gentrification. Housing Policy Debate 10.4, 711–771.Google Scholar
  87. Wyly, E. K. and D. Hammel (2004) Gentrification, segregation, and discrimination in the American urban system. Environment and Planning A 36.7, 1215–1241.Google Scholar
  88. Wyly, E. K., K. Newman, A. Schafran and E. Lee (2010) Displacing New York. Environment and Planning 42.11, 2602–2623.Google Scholar
  89. Zukin, S. (1990) Socio-Spatial Prototypes of a New Organization of Consumption: The Role of Real Cultural Capital. Sociology 24.1, 37–55.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für SozialwissenschaftenHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Statistisches BundesamtBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations