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Wenn der Geist einmal aus der Flasche ist

Das Brexit-Referendum und die Politisierung der EU in Großbritannien
  • Oliver Treib
Chapter
Part of the Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft book series (VGPO)

Zusammenfassung

Großbritannien ist der erste Mitgliedstaat, dessen Bevölkerung in einem Referendum beschlossen hat, aus der Europäischen Union (EU) auszutreten. Dieser Beitrag argumentiert, dass dem Brexit-Votum eine extreme Politisierung der EU-Mitgliedschaft vorausgegangen ist, und er geht der Frage nach, wie es zu dieser Fundamentalpolitisierung gekommen ist. Er diskutiert zunächst die theoretischen Bedingungen für die Politisierung vormals nicht umstrittener Themen. Dabei spielen die politischen Kommunikationsstrategien von Parteieliten sowie die Schwerpunktsetzung und die inhaltliche Ausrichtung der Medienberichterstattung eine zentrale Rolle. Im empirischen Teil zeichnet der Beitrag dann den Verlauf des Politisierungsprozesses in Großbritannien vom Beitritt zur Europäischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft (EWG) 1973 bis zum Brexit-Referendum 2016 nach. Er zeigt dabei, dass die Triebkräfte der Politisierung inner- und später auch zwischenparteiliche Konflikte über Europa waren, die sich im Rahmen der Mobilisierungsstrategien von Parteieliten und verstärkt durch eine breite Medienberichterstattung schließlich auch auf die Bevölkerung übertrugen. Dadurch kam es zu einer tiefen, alle gesellschaftlichen Schichten erfassenden Spaltung über das Verhältnis Großbritanniens zur EU, das schlussendlich zum Brexit-Votum im Juni 2016 führte.

Schlagworte

Brexit EU Euroskeptizismus Framing Großbritannien Party Cueing Politische Kommunikation Politisierung 

Abstract

The United Kingdom (UK) is the first member state whose citizens have decided to leave the European Union (EU). This chapter argues that a process of extreme politicization of EU membership paved the way for the Brexit vote, and it analyses the dynamics that gave rise to this fundamental politicization. The chapter first discusses the theoretical conditions that drive the politicization of formerly uncontroversial issues. Among these, the political communication strategies of party elites and the intensity as well as tone of media coverage play a key role. The empirical part traces the process of politicization in the UK from the accession to the European Economic Community in 1973 to the Brexit referendum in 2016. It shows that the process of politicization was driven by conflicts over Europe within and between political parties, which spilled over to the broader public as a result of party mobilization and the extensive coverage of the EU issue in the Eurosceptic yellow press. These processes gave rise to a deep rift over EU membership, which divided all strata of British society and ultimately led up to the Brexit vote in June 2016.

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universität Münster, Institut für PolitikwissenschaftMünsterDeutschland

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