Strong Presidents for Weak States. How Weak State Capacity Fosters Vertically Concentrated Executives

Chapter
Part of the Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft book series (VGPO)

Abstract

The link between a strong state and democratic institutions is becoming a well-established finding. Despite mounting empirical evidence mapping the existence of such a connection, very few contributors have been able to propose a mechanism through which this dynamic operates, hence thwarting attempts to establish a causal direction. This chapter attempts to fill this gap by linking post-independence levels of state capacity with the strength of presidents, an institutional feature already hypothesized to have strong effects on democratization efforts. Using 26 post-communist countries over the period 1989-2009, I argue that state capacity, understood as ‘the institutional capacity of a central state, despotic or not, to penetrate its territories and logistically implement decisions’ (Mann 1993: 59) affects democratization processes by shaping the level of concentration of power in the hands of executives.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Aghion, P., A. Alesina, and F. Trebbi. 2002. Endogenous Political Institutions. NBER Working Papers 9006. National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w9006.pdf. Accessed: 16 November 2016.
  2. Beck, N., and J. N. Katz. 1996. “Nuisance Vs. Substance: Specifying and Estimating Time-Series-Cross-Section Models.” Political Analysis 6(1), 1-36.Google Scholar
  3. Blondel, J., and F. Müller-Rommel (Eds.). 2001. Cabinets in Eastern Europe. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  4. Blondel, J., F. Müller-Rommel, and D. Malova (Eds.). 2007. Governing New European Democracies. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  5. Bratton, M. 2008. Do Free Elections Foster Capable Government? The Democracy-Governance Connection in Africa. Working Paper No.104. Afrobarometer. http://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/publications/Working%20paper/AfropaperNo104.pdf. Accessed: 16 November 2016.
  6. Cameron, D. R. 2007. “Post-Communist Democracy: The Impact of the European Union.” Post-Soviet Affairs 23(3), 185-217.Google Scholar
  7. Carbone, G. 2015. “Democratisation as a State-Building Mechanism: A Preliminary Discussion of an Understudied Relationship.” Political Studies 13(1), 11-21.Google Scholar
  8. Carothers, T. 2007. “How Democracies Emerge: The ‘Sequencing’ Fallacy.” Journal of Democracy 17(1), 12-27.Google Scholar
  9. Cheibub, J. A. 2007. Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dimitrovna, A., and G. Pridham. 2004. “International Actors and Democracy Promotion in Central and Eastern Europe: The Integration Model and Its Limits.” Democratization 11(5), 91-112.Google Scholar
  11. Downing, B. M. 1992. The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy and Autocracy in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dunning, T. 2008. Crude Democracy. Natural Resource Wealth and Political Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Easter, G. M. 1997. “Preference for Presidentialism: Post-Communist Regime Change in Russia and the NIS.” World Politics 49(2), 184-211.Google Scholar
  14. Elster, J., C. Offe, and U. K. Preuss. 1998. Institutionl Design in Post-Communist Societies. Rebuilding the Ship at Sea. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ertman, T. 1997. Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fish, M. S. 1998. “The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Post-Communist World.” East European Politics and Societies 12(1), 31-78.Google Scholar
  17. Fish, M. S. 2001. The Dynamics of Democratic Erosion. In Anderson, R., M. S. Fish, and S. E. Hanson (Eds.), Postcommunism and the Theory of Democracy, 54-94. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fish, M. S. 2005. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fortin-Rittberger, J. 2012. “Explaining Post-Communist Founding Elections Results through Initial State Capacity.” East European Politics & Societies 26(4), 724-742.Google Scholar
  20. Fortin-Rittberger, J. 2014. “Exploring the Relationship between Infrastructural and Coercive State Capacity.” Democratization 21(7), 1244-1264.Google Scholar
  21. Fortin, J. 2010. “A Tool to Evaluate State Capacity in Post-Communist Countries, 1989-2006.” European Journal of Political Research 49(5), 654-686.Google Scholar
  22. Fortin, J. 2012. “Is There a Necessary Condition for Democracy? The Role of State Capacity in Post-Communist Countries.” Comparative Political Studies 45(7), 903-930.Google Scholar
  23. Fortin, J. 2013. “Measuring Presidential Powers: Revisiting Existing Aggregate Measurement.” International Political Science Review 34(1), 91-112.Google Scholar
  24. Freedom House. 2010. Freedom in the World Country Ratings, 1972-2007. http://www.freedomhouse.org. Accessed: 16 November 2016.
  25. Frye, T. 1997. “A Politics of Institutional Choices: Post-Communist Presidencies.” Comparative Political Studies 30(5), 523-552.Google Scholar
  26. Frye, T., J. Hellman, and J. Tucker. 2000. Data Base on Political Institutions in the Post-Communist World. Columbia University.Google Scholar
  27. Fukuyama, F. 2005. “‘Stateness’ First.” Journal of Democracy 16(1), 84-88.Google Scholar
  28. Geddes, B. 1995. “A Comparative Perspective on the Leninist Legacy in Eastern Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 28(2), 239-274.Google Scholar
  29. Gerring, J., S. C. Thacker, and C. Moreno. 2009. “Are Parliamentary Systems Better?” Comparative Political Studies 42(3), 327-359.Google Scholar
  30. Grotz, F., and F. Müller-Rommel. 2011. Die Regierungssysteme der mittel- und osteuropäischen EU-Staaten als Gegenstand der Vergleichenden Demokratieforschung. In Grotz, F., and F. Müller-Rommel (Eds.), Regierungssysteme in Mittel- und Osteuropa. Die neuen EU-Staaten im Vergleich, 11-24. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  31. Grzymala-Busse, A., and P. J. Luong. 2002. “Reconceptualizing the State: Lessons from Post-Communism.” Politics & Society 30(4), 529-554.Google Scholar
  32. Grzymala-Busse, A. 2007. Rebuilding Leviathan: Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hale, H. E. 2006. “Democracy or Autocracy on the March? The Colored Revolutions as Normal Dynamics of Patronal Presidentialism.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 39(3), 305-329.Google Scholar
  34. Hale, H. E. 2011. “Formal Constitutions in Informal Politics: Institutions and Democratization in Post-Soviet Eurasia.” World Politics 63(4), 581-617.Google Scholar
  35. Herbst, J. 1990. “War and the State in Africa.” International Security 14(4), 117-139.Google Scholar
  36. Herbst, J. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Holmes, S. 2006. Conclusion: The State of the State in Putin’s Russia. In Colton, T. J., and S. Holmes (Eds.), The State after Communism: Governance in the New Russia, 299-310. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  38. Horowitz, D. L. 1996. Comparing Democratic Systems. In Diamond, L., and M. F. Plattner (Eds.), The Global Resurgence of Democracy, 143-149. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kitschelt, H., Z. Mansfeldova, R. Markowski, and G. Toka (Eds.). 1999. Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kitschelt, H. 2003. Accounting for Postcommunist Regime Diversity: What Counts as a Good Cause? In Ekiert, G., and S. E. Hanson (Eds.), Legacies of Communism, 49-86. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kohler, U., and F. Kreuter. 2008. Data Analysis Using Stata. College Station: Stata Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kopstein, J. S., and D. A. Reilly. 2003. Postcommunist Spaces: A Political Geography Approach to Explaning Postcommunist Outcomes. In Ekiert, G., and S. E. Hanson (Eds.), Capitalism and Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe, 120-154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lijphart, A. 1991. “Constitutional Choices for New Democracies.” Journal of Democracy 2(1), 72-84.Google Scholar
  44. Lijphart, A. 1992. Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lijphart, A. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Linz, J. J. 1996. The Perils of Presidentialism. In Diamond, L., and M. F. Plattner (Eds.), The Global Resurgence of Democracy, 124-142. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Linz, J. J., and A. Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lipset, S. M. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53(1), 69-105.Google Scholar
  49. Luong, P. J. 2002. Institutional Change and Political Continuity in Post-Soviet Central Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Mainwaring, S. 1993. “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 26(2), 198-228.Google Scholar
  51. Mainwaring, S., and M. S. Shugart. 1997. Presidents and Democracy in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Mann, M. 1986. The Sources of Political Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Mann, M. 1993. The Sources of Social Power, Vol. 2: The Rise of Classes and Nation States, 1760-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Marshall, M. G., and K. Jaggers. 2012. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2012. The Polity IV Dataset. http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm. Accessed: 16 November 2016.
  55. Møller, J., and S.-E. Skaaning. 2011. “Stateness First?” Democratization 18(1), 1-24.Google Scholar
  56. Norris, P. 2008. Driving Democracy. Do Power Sharing Institutions Work? New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Power, T. J., and M. J. Gasiorowski. 1997. “Institutional Design and Democratic Consolidation in the Third World.” Comparative Political Studies 30(2), 123-155.Google Scholar
  58. Przeworski, A., M. Alvarez, J. A. Cheibub, and F. Limongi. 1996. “What Makes Democracies Endure?” Journal of Democracy 7(1), 39-55.Google Scholar
  59. Przeworski, A., A. Michael, A. Cheibub, and F. Limongi 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Risse, T., M. Green Cowles, and J. Caporaso. 2001. Europeanization and Domestic Change: Introduction. In Green Cowles, M., J. Caporaso, and T. Risse (Eds.), Transforming Europe: Europeanization and Domestic Change, 1-20. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Rose, R., and D. C. Shin. 2001. “Democratization Backwards: The Problem of Third-Wave Democracies.” British Journal of Political Science 31(2), 331-354.Google Scholar
  62. Ross, M. L. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” World Politics 53(3), 325-361.Google Scholar
  63. Rubin, B., and J. Snyder (Eds.). 1998. Post-Soviet Political Order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Schatz, E. 2004. Modern Clan Politics. The Power of “Blood” in Kazakhstan and Beyond. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  65. Shugart, M. S., and J. M. Carey. 1992. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, P. H. 2005. Democracy in Latin America: Political Change in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Sorensen, G. 2001. Changes in Statehood: The Transformation of International Relations. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  68. Stepan, A., and C. Skach. 1993. “Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation.” World Politics 46(1), 1-22.Google Scholar
  69. Stoner-Weiss, K. 2006. Resisting the State. Reform and Retrenchment in Post-Soviet Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Tilly, C. (Ed.). 1975. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Tilly, C. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States, A.D. 990-1992. Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  72. Vachudova, M. A. 2005. Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Vachudova, M. A. 2010. Democratization in Postcommunist Europe. Illiberal Regimes and the Leverage of the European Union. In Bunce, V., M. McFaul, and K. Stoner-Weiss (Eds.), Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, 82-106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Williams, L. K., and G. D. Whitten. 2012. “But Wait, There’s More! Maximizing Substantive Inferences from TSCS Models.” The Journal of Politics 74(3), 685-693.Google Scholar
  75. World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank (producer and distributor). http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators. Accessed: 21 December 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PolitikwissenschaftUniversität SalzburgSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations